Issue 4, November 1996
INFORMING THE PROCESS AND OUTCOMES OF RECYCLING IN THE UNITED STATES: THE NATIONAL MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE RECYCLING SYMPOSIUM
Douglas J. Lober
Nicholas School of the Environment
Durham, NC 27708
The National Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Symposium, held at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment August 10th and 11th, 1994, brought together 22 national municipal solid waste (MSW) experts to take a fact-based look at recycling to determine current and future levels of recycling in the United States and to examine key influences on recycling activity.
There were several findings. One is that no national legislated or voluntary definition of recycling exits, despite this being crucial for developing waste management policy. The United States is currently recycling 20 percent of the nation’s MSW or 42 million tons per year of the 200 million tons of MSW generated. More than two thirds of all recycling tonnage can be classified as being from four waste items: yard trimmings, corrugated boxes, newspapers, and glass containers. The average U.S recycling rate goal by state is 39 percent. Few states are close to reaching these goals. Over the next five years, given current markets and economics and infrastructure capabilities, the symposium consensus was that a national recycling rate of 33 percent to 38 percent is obtainable. Recycling of yard trimmings has the greatest potential to contribute to the increase in recycling. Federal government involvement in recycling is likely to be in data collection, cost accounting, market development, and determining the relationship of recycling relative to other waste management strategies and to other environmental problems such as global warming. These findings are a useful starting point to advance further discussions of municipal solid waste recycling policy.
Key Words: Recycling, Municipal solid waste, Waste management, Source Reduction, Environment, Callaboration
A CRITICAL REVIEW OF PHOTOGRAPHIC AND RADIOGRAPHIC SILVER RECYCLING
David Eugene Kimbrough
Water Quality Laboratory Supervisor
Castaic Lake Water Agency
27234 Bouquet Canyon Road
Santa Clarita, CA 91350-2173
Phillip W. Wong
United States Department of Energy
1000 Independence Ave.
S.W. Washington D.C. 20585
University of California, Los Angeles
Department of Geography
405 Hilgard Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90024
University of California, Los Angeles
Department of Economics
405 Hilgard Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Much of the silver consumed annually in the United States is used in photographic and radiographic applications. Small operations such as local doctors’ and dentists’ offices, veterinary clinics, and one hour film developers consume the bulk of this silver during the photographic/radiographic developing process. Once used, the majority of this silver ends up as waste, typically as sediment in our nation’s waterways or as solid waste in landfills. Although this silver could easily be recovered and recycled, the current regulatory environment makes disposal an easier, less costly option for these small generators. This paper explores the current laws and regulations that discourage recyling, the technologies available for silver recovery, and options to promote increased silver recycling in the photographic/radiographic area.
This paper was originally prepared as material for an academic course.
Keywords: Silver, recycling, photographic, wastewater, hazardous waste, policy options
HYDROLYSIS OF NATURAL LIGNOCELLULOSICS, WITH SORBED HEAVY METAL, TO SUGARS BY A BACILLUS SPECIES
T.C. 16.1669 ,’Aswini’, Jagathy
Trivandrum – 695014
Regional Research Laboratory
CSIR, Trivandrum – 695019
Department Of Biotechnology
University Of Kerala
Kariyavattom, Trivandrum – 695 581
A potent Bacillus species producing the cellulolytic enzymes was isolated from fibre-retting sites along the Kerala backwaters. The organism was identified as a variant of B.subtilis capable of luxurious growth at 60 deg C and tolerating 7g% sodium chloride in the medium. The crude culture filtrate of the organism grown in nutrient broth containing minerals, wheat bran and cellulose was used as the enzyme for hydrolysis experiments. Rubber wood sawdust 60X120 mesh size sorbed heavy metals like copper, lead, chromium, mercury and cobalt in the solution. Pretreatment of the sorbent by boiling and impregnation with ammonium sulfide and sodium sulfide improved sorption by 10-15% (50-60% of the metals was sorbed from solutions of 10 micro gram per ml). Desorption of Co++ from the +sorbent was achieved by treatment with 0.01 M calcium chloride. The sorbent retained 5-6 micro gram of metal ions per gram. Presence of Co++ at this concentration in the saw dust improved hydrolysis of the cellulosic substrate to sugars by the culture filtrate. 6-18 micro gram per ml Co++ in growth medium enhanced exoglucanase secretion by 20-30% and enzyme activity. Sorption of Co++ was closely associated with primary metabolism and biomass build-up. The data point towards the role of cobalt ions in the cellulase stabilization and/or activation.
Key Words: Lignocellulosics, Biosorption, Heavy metals, Bacterial cellulases
DETOXIFICATION OF FLY ASHES FROM RDF INCINERATION PLANT
Arcangeli L, Cipriani P., Galeotti L, Gavasci R, Sirini P
PMP Sez. Dec. Acque Potabili Az. USL RM/A – Rome, Italy
University of Rome “La Sapienza” – Faculty of Engineering – Rome, Italy
University of Rome “Tor Vergata” – Faculty of Engineering – Rome, Italy
Incineration has become more and more used for solid waste treatment. This is mostly due to volume reduction and energy recovery. However, the amount of solid residues from incineration process needs treatment systems to reduce the environmental risks due to their high content of heavy metals.
This paper presents the results of an experimental work whose purpose is to develop an extraction process to reduce the leachability of heavy metals contained in the fly ashes from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) combustion process. This treatment aims at reducing the disposal costs of fly ash by allowing its disposal in landfills at lower environmental risk.
Key Words: RDF, Incineration, Fly Ashes, Detoxification, Heavy Metals, Leachability
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF THE AUTOMATED COLLECTION/PROCESSING INTERFACE
Richard Ian Stessel, Ph. D., P. E.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of South Florida
Tampa, FL 33620-5350
Recycling has proven to be far more costly than originally admitted. Two factors interact to raise costs: categories of materials collected and collection technology. Collection costs have always formed a large component of solid waste management. With curbside segregation, each additional material collected adds to collection costs. Even then, material quality is frequently inadequate. Simultaneously, some communities are moving away from curbside segregation to co-mingled or blue-bag collection, which require a MRF.
The importance of considering automated collection has already been discussed. This paper presents an updated variant on a concept for an automated collection vehicle. This proposed vehicle employs selective compaction of materials to improve quality. Efficiency is best achieved when the new collection technology and the automated MRF are designed to work together. This paper explores that interface by briefly discussing MRF compatability with the proposed collection vehicle.
Key Words: Recycling, Automated Processing, Waste, Collection, Materials Recovery, Resource Recovery
SOLID WASTE RECYCLING, DISPOSAL AND MANAGEMENT IN BANGKOK
Samorn Muttamara, Candelaria L. Sales and Salaya Phunsiri
Environmental Engineering Program
School of Environment, Resources and Development
Asian Institute of Technology
G.P.O. Box 2754
Bangkok 10501, Thailand
Solid waste recycling should be integrated with other solid waste management options to abate degradation in urban environment. This can be achieved through promotion of economically efficient and environmentally sound practices in managing municipal waste. Recycling can be promoted by encouraging separation at source. The best way of waste separation at source can be stimulated by financial incentives, legislation and raising of environmental awareness. In Bangkok, 90% of the solid waste is disposed of by open dumping. Around each disposal site, there are a number of small scale recycling shops (SSR) where collected materials are sold by the collection crews and the scavengers. The quantity of materials delivered to each of these SSR shops by the collection crews ranges from 1 to 6 tons per day. The total daily tonnage of recyclable materials collected by waste pickers was estimated at 286.03 tons, about 5% of the garbage collected by the city (TAMS PIRNIE, 1989) and is increased to 9.6% (TSAI CHIN, 1993).
Open dumping has been found to create environmental problems because of air pollution, bad smell, presence of insects and rodents which are injurious to health, and potential contamination of ground water. The levels of BOD and SS of the leachate and khlong water in On-Nooch disposal site exceeded the standard value of 20 and 60 mg/L BOD and SS, respectively. Dissolved oxygen was found to be very low, about 0.88 to 1.90 mg/L. Khlong water also contains high Mn content of 0.12 – 1.39 mg/L compared with the standard value of 0.3 mg/L. Furthermore, the existing ambient air quality in On-Nooch revealed that the highest level of methane and carbon dioxide was 13.07 mg/m3 and 1758.33 mg/m3 (8 hr ave.), respectively at night time collected on top of the refuse mountain. These gases may cause explosion or fire if not exhausted properly to air.
It is recommended therefore, that open dumping should be converted to a sanitary landfill with proper environmental protection measures in order to minimize environmental pollution. However, it is also proposed that the government, if possible, should adopt the waste-to-energy treatment system since it is not possible by sanitary landfill to eliminate all the negative impacts to the environment.
Issue 3, August 1996
BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN LANDFILLS
American University of Beirut
Faculty of Engineering and Architecture
850 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10022
Angelos N. Findikakis and James O. Leckie
Department of Civil Engineering,
Stanford, CA 94305
This paper presents a mathematical model describing biochemical and physical processes in landfills. The model incorporates biokinetic equations describing the dynamics of the microbial landfill ecosystem into multi-component (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen) time dependent gas and heat generation and transport models. The model accounts for effects of temperature variations with time on transport properties and biochemical processes in a landfill environment. The resulting integrated biokinetic, gas, and heat generation and transport model was used to simulate field data from the Mountain View Controlled Landfill Project, California. Model simulation results were in good agreement with data from the landfill field test. The model can be used to simulate the gas production, migration, and emission at a landfill site, and assess the parameters that control biological, physical, and chemical processes in a landfill ecosystem.
Key words: Solid waste, landfill, biodegradation, numerical modeling
POTENTIAL USE OF FLY ASH IN COLOMBIAN BLENDED CEMENTS
Ruby MejÌa de GutiÈrrez
Silvio Delvasto A.
Engineering Materials Department
Universidad del Valle
The current yearly Colombian production of coal combustion residues is approximately 800.000 tonnes and the size of the disposal problem of these wastes is quite large. The electric utilities alone burn over 1.5 millions tons of coal annually; as a result 270.000 tons of fly ash are produced. In this research four different fly ashes have been compared. Measurements include their chemical composition, pozzolanic activity, effect of the amount of material added on the compressive strength, heat of hydration and durability properties. It is shown that the partial replacement of cement with fly ash reduces the Coefficient of Chloride Diffusion. It is suggested that this is because the pore structures of the blended cement mortars are discontinuous and tortuous.
It is demonstrated that a fly ash of good quality, incorporated in an optimun proportion, is an excellent cement replacement material.
Key words: Coal; Coal wastes; fly ash; Pozzolans; Blended Portland Cements; Mortars; Durability Properties; Chloride Difussion
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY FOR THE SELECTION OF SITES FOR DEVELOPING A HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY — A CASE STUDY
Dr. A. K. Saxena
Bhatti Priyesh D.
National Productivity Council
5-6, Institutional Area, Lodi Road,
New Delhi – 110 003
The improper disposal of hazardous wastes has led to the contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water throughout the world. In India, in order to manage such wastes in an environmentally sound manner, the Government in 1989 notified the “Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules.” As part of these regulations, sites for the disposal of hazardous waste have to be determined based on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies. In this regard, an EIA study for developing an hazardous waste disposal facility was carried out by National Productivity Council of India in Gujarat State, located in the western part of India. The study was sponsored by the Gujarat State Pollution Control Board. This paper deals with (a) the Site Assessment and Selection Criteria evolved for selecting a suitable site under Indian environmental conditions and (b) an EIA study conducted for the development of hazardous waste disposal facility in Ahmedabad District of Gujarat, India.
Key words: Industrial Estates, Inventorying, Secured Landfill, Site Selection Criteria, Hydraulic Conductivity, Environmental Impact Assessment
AN INTEGRATED, MULTISTAGE, MULTICRITERIA METHODOLOGY FOR SITING HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND ILLUSTRATIVE APPLICATION
Prof. Helen Briassoulis
Department of Human Geography
University of the Aegean
Prof. Michel Installe
Center for Systems Engineering and Applied Mechanics
Catholic University of Louvain
The siting of hazardous waste management facilities is an important consideration in the context of hazardous waste management as it touches upon issues of economic efficiency, environmental soundness, and social fairness. The paper presents a theoretical analytical framework to guide the site selection process for this kind of facility and provides an illustrative case study application. A brief review of the literature on hazardous facilities siting methodologies is offered in the first section which are synthesized into a multistage, multicriteria methodological framework which is presented and detailed in the second section of the paper. The third section provides an illustrative case study application of the proposed methodology which refers to the siting problem of a hazardous wastes incinerator in Greece. The paper ends with a summary of the main features of the methodology and suggests future research directions. The proposed methodology: (1) allows for the consideration of more than one criteria in siting hazardous waste management facilities which belong to different hierarchical levels (stages) of the siting decision process; (2) places special emphasis on the environmental criteria both as regards the provision of specific environmental functions and attributes as well as regards the environmental impacts of these facilities; (3) offers a framework to deal with multiactor decision settings and conflict resolution; (4) provides for computer support of certain phasesóthe site evaluation and the group decision-making phasesóof the siting process; (5) it is simple and understandable, a feature especially important for its implementability.
Key words: Siting of hazardous facilities; Multicriteria decision
HOUSEHOLD ADOPTION OF A NEW TECHNOLOGY: THE CASE OF WOOD PELLET STOVES
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Business
New Mexico State University
Las Cruces, New Mexico
Household wood pellet stove (WPS) awareness, ownership, and potential acquisition in Albuquerque, New Mexico is analyzed using a multiple-choice model. Using data obtained from a telephone survey, households were divided into four groups: current WPS owners, non-owners considering ownership, non-owners not considering ownership, and those unaware of WPS technology. The research found few current WPS owners. WPS considerers are likely to live in larger than average homes, already use a conventional woodstove and/or be frequent fireplace users, or heat their homes with propane or butane. However, across all variations in socio-economic and woodburning or home-heating characteristics, households are most likely to either have no knowledge of WPS technology or to know about the stoves but not be considering the purchase of one. Improved winter air quality through changes in residential woodburning practices in Albuquerque will require increases in public awareness of WPS technology and its benefits, and target marketing by the WPS industry.
Key words: Technology adoption, woodburning, air quality, home heating, econometric analysis
Issue 2, May 1996
LEAKAGE DETECTION IN LINED SYSTEMS
Haluk Akgun, Ph.D., P.E.
Department of Geological Engineering
Middle East Technical University
Robert B. Wallace, P.E.
Senior Project Manager
Dames & Moore
6400 Congress Avenue, Suite 2500
Boca Raton, Florida 33487
The primary objective of any lining system is containment. In case of double lining systems, the ability to preserve this containment even when leakage occurs through the top liner is available. The design of the system dictates the ability to respond to a problem and remedy it if possible. Consequently, although not desirable, in a double lined system, leakage can provide an assessment of performance which would otherwise be unavailable.
Key Words: Single lined systems; Double lined systems; Geomembrane-only liners, Clay-only liners, Composite liners; Leakage rate; Unitized leakage rate; Leachate; Leakage detection and collection system; Leachate collection system
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT MODELS: A STATE OF THE ART REVIEW
Marianne L. MacDonald
Urban and Regional Planning Program
University of Colorado at Denver
Many models have been created over the last few decades to assist in developing more efficient solid waste management programs. These models vary in their intent, assumptions, and solution procedures. However, they all have the ability to provide significant insights into the design of solid waste activities. A summary of models developed in the last 15 years is presented along with model characteristics and a discussion of their details. This review focuses on models whose computational structures have been published or formally presented. By providing this information, an understanding of future modeling needs becomes apparent. Finally, a decision support system is suggested to assist in using the models that have been developed.
KEYWORDS: Solid Waste Management, Mathematical Models, Optimization, Simulation, Decision Support Systems, Geographic Information Systems, Facility Siting
NEW APPROACHES TO WASTE OIL REDUCTION AND REUSE
D.J. Graziano and E.J. Daniels
Energy Systems Division
Argonne National Laboratory
9700 S. Cass Avenue
Argonne, IL 60439
A U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored study was conducted to identify and assess opportunities for increasing the recovery and recycle of waste oils. The emphasis of the study was on establishing a consistent methodology that can be used to prioritize reduction, reuse, recycling, and disposal options for waste oil on the basis of energy, environmental, and economic impacts. The resultant “reuse hierarchy” clarifies priorities for future research and development in this area. The following research goals reflect these priorities: (1) increase the availability and effectiveness of collection programs for do-it-yourself and off-road used-oil generators, (2) reduce the volume of lubricating oil consumed and/or unrecovered, and (3) increase the volume of re-refined oil manufactured and sold. As feasible, research should be conducted cooperatively with formulators and manufacturers of lubricating oil; industries consuming lubricating oil; regulators; and used oil collectors, reprocessors, and re-refiners.
STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM IN AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION
F. Medici and L. Di Palma
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica,
dei Materiali, Materie Prime e Metallurgia,
Universit¦ di Roma “La Sapienza”,
The experimental results concerning the industrial waste solidification/stabilization process achieved by the technology of granulation in aqueous solution are reported in this work. The product’s mechanical properties and the amount of trivalent chromium released during the immobilization process have been estimated. The material balances of the process have been also computed and the solidification capacities of the alkaline solution have been optimized.
Keywords: Solidification/stabilization; cement; granulation; trivalent chromium.
EVOLUTION OF THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL WITH THE APPLICATION OF M.S.W. COMPOST
I. Diaz-Marcote and A. Polo
Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales
115 dpdo. 28006 Madrid
The application of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost is of great interest for the restoration of agricultural soils which have been degraded because of current cultivation techniques. This study is based on a field experiment carried out on the farm “La Higeruela”, owned by the CSIC in the central region of Spain.
The aspects presented in this work are those related to the evolution of the physical properties: stability of the aggregates to benzene and water holding capacity and the chemical properties: pH, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity. In general, it could be observed that the stability of the aggregates and the water holding capacity of the soil tended to increase, whereas the pH, the electrical conductivity and the cation exchange capacity increased significantly. This behavior is very interesting because the immobilization of the heavy metals is assured by the increase of the pH, whereas a higher interchange of nutrients between the soil and the plant is favored by the increase of the cation exchange capacity, which increases the fertilizing potential of the soil. The increase of the stable aggregates contributes to the increase of the fertilizing potential and the stability of the soil in contrast to the phenomena of erosion.
KEY WORDS: MSW compost, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, stability of aggregates, water holding capacity.
INTEGRATING MINE PERMITTING PROCESSES: THE USE OF MASTER HEARINGS
Barry G. Rabe
Department of Health Management and Policy
School of Public Health
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029
The process of environmental permit administration is notoriously fragmented. Some states have begun to attempt more integrated permitting processes, intended to foster greater efficiency and innovation. The state of Wisconsin has been particularly active in examining its current permitting system and searching for alternatives. One early experiment involves use of a master hearing process to present an integrated review of all permitting decisions related to new mining proposals. Initial experience suggests that this process holds some promise, although a major test is now underway.
KEY WORDS: Environmental permits; environmental regulatory integration; Wisconsin environmental policy; mine permitting; mine regulation; mining.
BUILDING WASTE MINIMIZATION IN HONG KONG CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
C.S. Poon, Xu Yuqing
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
Department of Building and Real Estate
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hung Hom, Kowloon
With the implementation of port and airport development projects, together with many commercial building and housing redevelopment programmes, a large amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is being produced in Hong Kong (currently 25,000 tonnes/day). Although the use of selected construction waste for land reclamation purposes is a beneficial way of utilizing the waste, the disposal of construction waste at landfills and marine dumps has caused major environmental concerns. The landfill disposal option has also expedited the landfill shortage problem in the territory. Government sources indicated that there is an acute shortage of landfill space in Hong Kong and the continuation of disposal of construction waste at landfills would jeopardize the strategic use of landfills for the disposal of the more demanding waste types such as domestic refuse and stabilized hazardous waste.
This paper describes a recent research study carried out by the authors on examining ways to minimize the production of construction waste from building sites. The research methodologies include a questionnaire survey, site visits, evaluation of alternative construction technologies including the use of new construction and management methods. The findings of the research indicate that different construction methods would produce different amounts of construction waste. The use of alternative building technologies and management methods can reduce waste production.
Key words: building waste, construction waste, waste minimization, Hong Kong
Issue 1, February 1996
SOME PROBLEMS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
G.E. Blight and C.M. Mbande
University of the Witwatersrand
Johannesburg, South Africa
There is a growing concern for the inadequacies of solid waste management in developing countries, and developing areas of countries with mixed economies. The reasons for waste collection and sanitary disposal and the technology of landfilling is well-understood and accepted in developed countries, and workable regulations are now in place in most developed lands. However, waste disposal in developing countries is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. There is a need to recognise the difficulties experienced in managing waste in developing areas and to understand the reasons for those difficulties. This paper briefly over-views the situation and makes recommendations for future directions of research and action.
Keywords: Waste management; developing areas; waste composition; scavenging; reclaiming; graded standards; landfilling
AN EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF GREENWASTE* COMPOST FOR HORTICULTURAL APPLICATIONS
Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering
University College Dublin
Composting of waste is one option currently being utilised internationally to beneficially reuse waste. An experiment was carried out in the Dublin region to assess the use of greenwaste compost in horticultural applications. The waste comprising mainly of parks waste, and garden waste deposited at civic amenity sites, was collected and shredded to form a trapezoidal windrow which reached maturation in March 1993.
Samples were taken and initially subjected to a sieve analysis to determine the particle size profile of the compost. Growing trials using lettuce and tomato plants with potting peat as the control substrate were carried out under controlled conditions at the university’s greenhouses. Both chemical and physical analyses of the mixes were carried out at regular intervals, in tandem with continuous monitoring of plant performance.
The plants grown in mixes containing greenwaste compost did not meet basic requirements for plant yield as set by European standards. Plants sown in the compost were not as succulent as those sown in the control substrate with average percentage dry matters of 17% and 8% respectively. The compost was lacking in nitrogen and phosphorus and had excessive potassium in comparison to the control substrate. Results of heavy metal analyses showed that the compost may be categorised as a class II compost (clean compost) according to German and American standards.
The use of the compost in conjunction with potting peat was recommended as the true value of the compost is in the organic matter and microbial activity it imparts and these properties will promote healthy plant growth through increased tilth and water holding capacity.
Key words: Greenwaste; Compost; Growing Trial; Horticulture
DRAINAGE PIPE FROM SCRAP TRUCK TIRES
Jess W. Everett
School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science
University of Oklahoma
202 West Boyd Street, Room 334
Norman, OK 73019-0631
Mack-Blackwell Transportation Center
University of Arkansas
4190 Bell Engineering Center
Fayetteville, AR 72701
School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science
University of Oklahoma
202 West Boyd Street, Room 334
Norman, OK 73019-0631
Truck-tire pipes are made by cutting the bead and sidewall from 40 heavy truck tires. Eighty bead/sidwalls are stacked, compressed to eight feet (2.4 m), and held in place with #3 rebars wrapped length-wise around the pipe walls at 90 degree intervals and welded. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the truck-tire pipe in drainage applications using site inspections, experimental tests, and theoretical analyses.
Truck-tire pipes have both advantages and limitations compared to conventional drainage pipes. Parallel plate loading tests indicate that truck-tire pipes meet stiffness requirements. In fact, truck-tire pipes maintain acceptable stiffness over a wide range of deflection. Corrosion analysis of pipe rebars indicates that the pipes may have long lifetimes, even in corrosive soils. The main limitations are the higher cost of installation and the potential for soil erosion through joints. The later problem can be addressed by carefully installing joint wrap and, perhaps, using a wider wrap.
Key words: Scrap tires; Tires; Culverts; Pipes; Reuse; Pipe stiffness
DRY-CELL BATTERY HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS
Raymond A. Shapek
University of Central Florida
Nearly every state, including the District of Columbia has passed some type of solid waste management law. Thirteen states have included laws to reduce landfill contamination by restricting the amount of mercury and cadmium entering the waste stream through dry-cell (household) battery separation or collection programs. Household (HH) batteries contribute 52 percent of the cadmium and 88 percent of all mercury found in the municipal solid waste, yet comprise less than 1 percent (by weight) of municipal solid waste. The public is generally unaware of the potential health and environmental risks of unrestricted disposal of dry-cell batteries and local officials are reluctant to initiate collection programs because of the high-costs and subsequent disposal costs of collected cells. This article assesses the potential health and environmental risks of the unrestricted disposal of household batteries, the collection and available disposal options, and concludes with several recommendations for communities considering initiating HH battery collection/recycling programs.