Issue 4, November 2015
BARRIERS TO THE REGIONALIZATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT:
A CASE STUDY OF THE RECIFE METROPOLITAN REGION, BRAZIL
Simone Machado Santos1, Savia Gavazza1, Edvânia Torres Aguiar Gomes2
Lourdinha Florencio3, Mario T. Kato3*
1Federal University of Pernambuco, Academic Center of Agreste,
Nucleous of Technology, Laboratory of Environmental Engineering
Rodovia BR 104, Km 62, Nova Caruaru, CEP 55002-960 Caruaru PE, BRAZIL
2Federal University of Pernambuco, Center of Philosophy and Human Sciences,
Department of Geographical Sciences, Avenida Acadêmico Hélio Ramos s/n,
Cidade Universitária, CEP: 50740-530 Recife PE, BRAZIL
3Federal University of Pernambuco, Center of Technology and Geosciences, Department of Civil Engineering,
Laboratory of Environmental Sanitation. Av. Acadêmico Hélio Ramos s/n,
Cidade Universitária, CEP 50740-530 Recife PE, BRAZIL
The difficulties associated with municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a metropolitan region (MR) have been attributed to geographical, social, economic and political issues. When an MR is located in a developing country, the problem may be intensified by high population and urbanization growth rates, as well as a lack of infrastructure. The regionalization of MSWM means sharing solid waste treatment plants among the involved municipalities, which can bring economic and environmental benefits to each area. However, it is not an easy task to conciliate all of the economic, political and social interests involved in MSWM. A number of regionalization problems, or barriers, can be regarded as common to most developing countries. Based on the current situation and planning developed over 30 years, this study presents a number of barriers to the implementation of a regionalized policy for MSWM in the Recife Metropolitan Region (Northeast Brazil). The main problems reported involve the financial sustainability of projects, short-term planning and a lack of involvement by important societal entities. A number of guidelines for future MSWM planning are also suggested in order to avoid the same mistakes being repeated over time.
Keywords: developing countries; implementation of regionalized policy; barriers and failure; lessons learnt; proposal of new guidelines.
USE OF ORGANIC WASTE MATERIALS AS FERTILIZER
IN WATERMELON (Citrullus Lanatus L.) PRODUCTION
IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE OF NIGERIA
College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria
Idi Lakun Hamma
College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria
Aishat Abubakar Mukhtar
Department of Agronomy, Institute for Agricultural Research,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria
Two field trials were conducted during the 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria located on latitude 11011’N, longitude 7038’E and 686m above sea level in Northern Guinea Savannah ecological zone of Nigeria to study the effect of different organic manures on the growth and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated four times. The experiment consisted of five treatments namely; control, sawdust, goat manure, cow dung manure and poultry manure. The result indicated that there was a significant difference (P = 0.05) among the mean values on growth characters such as vine length, number of leaves per plant and number of branches per plant in both cropping seasons.
Similarly, there was a significant difference ( P = 0.05) among the mean values on yield characters such as number of fruits per plant, fruit length per plant, fruit diameter per plant, and fruit yield per ha in the two cropping seasons. Poultry manure significantly produced higher mean values of all growth and yield characters, while the control treatment significantly produced lower mean values of all growth and yield characters in all the two cropping seasons. Increasing yield in watermelon production can be achieved by applying organic manure; therefore farmers wishing to embark in watermelon production are advised to use 1,684kg of poultry manure or any of these organic manure sources available at the rates used in this trial in order to increase their yield.
Keywords: Watermelon, poultry manure, goat manure, cow dung, sawdust
IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL ON COMMUNITY-BASED URBAN SOLID
WASTE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE IN IBADAN, NIGERIA
Alberta Environment and Parks
9915-108 Street, South Petroleum Plaza 3rd Floor
Edmonton, Canada, T5K 2G8
Tel: 1-780-643-6483; Fax: 1-780-422-4251
Ibadan, the Oyo State’s capital, has urban solid waste collection, treatment, and disposal problems that like most cities in developing world, are concentrated in poor neighbourhoods on the edges and core areas of cities. There are still many neighbourhoods and local markets where garbage is not collected for a considerable length of time. Main objective of the research was to explore the impact of social capital on community-based urban solid waste management and to understand why people participated in voluntary associations in the provision of solid waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study adopted both qualitative and quantitative approaches using multiple data gathering techniques. Major findings from the study indicate that to a great extent, social capital can influence the success of community-based urban solid waste management initiatives. Empirical field observation results show that social capital had positive influence on the success of community-based urban solid waste management in Bodija, Ayeye and Alesinloye communities.
Keywords: Social capital, solid waste, neighbourhood, community-based waste management, association, Ibadan
INFLUENCE OF CHROMIUM CONTAINING SPINELS IN AN ELECTRIC
ARC FURNACE SLAG ON THE LEACHING BEHAVIOUR
Alexia Aldriana*, Johann G. Raithb, Daniel Höllena, Roland Pombergera
aChair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management,
Department of Environmental and Energy Process Engineering,
Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria
bChair of Resource Mineralogy,
Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria
Electric arc furnace slags are suitable construction and paving materials for roads due to their physical properties (e.g. volume stability). However, concerns are being raised in regard to the leaching behaviour of slags, especially in terms of the element chromium and its toxicity in the hexavalent state. The leaching behaviour is significantly controlled by the mineral phases and their solubility whose formations depend mainly on the process conditions (i.e. additives, temperature, cooling rate). In this contribution, the content, the element distribution and the mobility of chromium for an electric arc furnace slag were investigated and assessed. The extensively analysed material was a slag from a steel production plant in Austria using unalloyed scrap as raw material. XRF and electron microprobe analyses were carried out as well as leaching tests with initial acid/base addition to influence the pH value. XRF results gave a total chromium content of 1.7 mass% Cr. The mineralogical investigation by electron microprobe analyses showed that chromium ions are bound within stable spinel phases. Two different types of spinels occur in the slag: aluminium-chromium-magnesium- and chromium containing aluminium-magnesium-spinels (type I) as well as chromium-manganese-iron-spinels (type II). The chromium content in the accompanying phases (e.g. gehlenite) is insignificant. The natural occurrence of the mentioned type I spinel is quite common and they are found in mafic and ultramafic rocks and soils produced by weathering of these rocks. The leaching tests showed that the extraction of spinel bound chromium of the investigated electric furnace slag is unlikely, even at low pH values.
Keywords: Electric arc furnace slag; Chromium; Spinel; Leaching behaviour
ASSESSMENT OF THE STATUS OF HEALTHCARE WASTE
MANAGEMENT IN HEALTHCARE FACILITIES IN BOTSWANA
Daniel Mmereki1,2*, Baizhan Li1,2 Liu Meng1,2
1Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering
2International Research Centre of Low Carbon and Green Buildings
Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400045, P.R. China
Healthcare waste (HCW) is a complex waste stream containing infectious waste, general waste, pathological waste, sharp objects, chemical waste, pharmaceutical waste and non-infectious. The quantity and composition of HCW vary from one healthcare facility to another depending on the services provided, the social and economic conditions of the patients. Improper healthcare waste management practices (HCWMPs) can have direct or indirect negative impacts on the patients, healthcare workers, local communities and the environment. The main objective of this paper is to present an assessment of the existing situation of HCWMPs in public and private healthcare facilities (HCFs) in Botswana. Extensive field investigations were carried out for assessment of generation, segregation, collection, storage and disposal systems of HCW in the HCFs in Botswana. The management status (per the Botswana Clinical Waste Management Code of Practice (BCWMCP), 1996 has also been assessed, and also HCW management status in neighbouring countries was also discussed, and an integrated action plan consistent with the regulatory requirements for better HCW management has been suggested; all are presented in this paper. For both public and private HCFs in Botswana, there are many shortcomings in the existing practices used in managing the HCW, including serious lack of reliable data, on factors such as waste generation and characteristics, institutional systems, management capabilities, administrative bodies and technically skilled human resources. Other shortcomings pertain mainly to a lack of an integrated healthcare waste management plan (IHCWMP), decision-makers putting a lower priority on HCW management and not allocating adequate resources for HCW management, and due to the fact that some facilities do not have a plan for HCW management and training. Also, inadequate non-operational regulatory reforms, and inadequate waste management technologies and expertise required to effectively carry out activities for HCWM. To overcome the deficiencies in the existing HCWMPs and improve the existing conditions, an effective strategy incorporating an integrated HCW management plan is proposed in this paper.
Keywords: Botswana, healthcare facilities, healthcare waste management, integrated healthcare waste management plan
UTILIZATION OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE AS ORGANIC
FERTILIZER TO ENHANCE GROWTH, YIELD AND
QUALITY OF EGGPLANT (SOLANUM MELONGENA)
Abhishek Sharma, Satyawati Sharma*
Center for Rural Development and Technology
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Hauz Khas, New Delhi – 110016
The awareness about detrimental effects of chemical fertilizers has elicited an interest towards the alternatives to supply the plant nutrients through organic components. Use of non-edible oil cakes, waste products of agro industries, could be one such option. In the present study, the efficacy of non-edible oil cakes (Jatropha, Karanja, Neem and Mahua) in combination with chemical (Urea, murate of potash and single super phosphate) and biofertilizers viz., Azotobacter and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, yield and quality of eggplant was assessed. Results indicated that combination of Jatropha cake and chemical fertilizers in the ratio of 50:25 along with recommended doses of biofertilizers, showed best results pertaining to plant height, NPK content of leaves, fresh biomass yield, fruit yield, proteins, carbohydrates dietary fibres and vitamin C. From the results, it was concluded that the combination of Jatropha cake and biofertilizers could replace chemical fertilizers without compromising on the quality and production value of eggplant.
Keywords: Non-edible oil cakes, chemical fertilizers, biofertilizers, eggplant
OZONE APPLICATION ON SLUDGE GENERATED FROM ADVANCED
PRIMARY TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER
Anisley Amador, Mayra Bataller, Eliet Veliz, María del Carmen Espinosa1
Department of Ozone Treatment Technologies, 1Department for Environmental Pollution Studies
National Centre for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 6412, Havana, Cuba
The study was conducted in two stages, at laboratory and bench scales, concerning ozone sludge treatment. Operating conditions were experimentally discussed. Both physical-chemical and microbiological characterizations of the sludge generated from Advanced Primary Treatment – APT (coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation) were carried out, before and after ozone treatment. Additionally, the effect of sludge ozonation on the pathogen inactivation, solubilization, mineralization, stabilization and reduction was evaluated. The results indicated that, under the experimental conditions studied at lab scale, ozone has a significant effect on the treated sludge. However, the ozone effect on reduction of individual parameters did not show significant differences among the treatments. Taking into account an economic criterion, an applied ozone dose of 2.6 g.L-1 would be recommended. Values of turbidity, color and absorbance at 254 nm were reduced to 72, 79 and 70%, respectively. Ozonation did not caused change in pH values. The maximum percentage of the resulting solubilization was 72% expressed as COD and 54% as total dissolved solids. The sludge stabilization was achieved with total volatile solids reduction between 58 and 67%. After ozonation, the VSS/TSS ratio decreased from 0.73 to less than 0.26, indicating mineralization of the sludge. Unstirred sludge volume index (SVI) dropped significantly from 55.03 to 13.34 ml.g-1 at 2.6 g.L-1, but it decreased very slightly as ozone dose increased. Moreover, the heavy metals concentration in the sludge did not exceed the limit values of land application reported by international standards. As for disinfection requirements, the results indicated that the sludge treated with ozone can be applied in agriculture. At lab scale, all of the applied ozone doses fulfilled satisfactorily the criteria for disinfection of Class B biosolids, but no dose meets for Class A. However, doses above 2.4 g.L-1 meet the standard for Class A biosolids at bench scale. The results demonstrated that it can be possible to achieve, in an economically feasible manner, the reduction of the volume and the pollution with ozonation of the sludge generated during the APT of a municipal wastewater. An integrated treatment with ozone of sludge, for reuse in agriculture, can be proposed.
Keywords: Sludge, ozonation, biosolids, heavy metals, disinfection, reuse
ELECTRONIC WASTE IN NIGERIA: PREVALENCE AND
MANAGEMENT IN KADUNA METROPOLIS
Tobias Nyam1*, Nacha Iliyasu1 & Cynthia O. Ohagoro2
1Chemical Engineering Dept. Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna – Nigeria
2Civil Engineering Dept. Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa – Nigeria
This study examines traders and technicians of electronics as stakeholders in e-waste management in Nigeria. The issues examined include: infrastructure and framework for e-waste management, legislation and safety consciousness of concerned technicians and traders in Kaduna metropolis, the research method employed in the study is questionnaire-based survey. The results indicate more than 55% of e-waste come from outside the state, the end of life profile indicate that 64.71% of respondents source spare parts from completely knocked down equipment abandoned in their shops, over 50% of technicians dispose scraps in either special or general dumps and 17.89% sell to scrap dealers. Of the respondents in the first rung of the recovery chain, 50% of them are careless about safety to the point of using protective equipment with 17.89% using them during disposal of scraps, and 47.37% of total respondents are aware of harm in processing some parts of electronics. On regulation, the state has no specific law on e-waste, 70.53% and 58.94% of respondents in the survey are ignorant of any law governing ‘used’ electronics and any of three environmental laws in the state respectively. The situation calls for sufficient assessment of the problem, policy formulation and legislation to solve it.
Keywords: E-waste, Nigeria, regulation, management, safety, Kaduna
Issue 3, August 2015
SUGARCANE BAGASSE: APPLICATIONS FOR ENERGY
PRODUCTION AND CERAMIC MATERIALS
Silvio Rainho Teixeira*, Amanda Arenales, Agda Eunice de Souza,
Renata da Silva Magalhães, Angel Fidel Vilche Peña, Davi Aquino, Rosane Freire
Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, FCT/DFQB, C.P. 467, 19060-900
Presidente Prudente – SP, Brasil
The utilization of organic and agricultural residues for energy production is considered an important part in any strategy to achieve renewable energy goals and to reduce waste disposal and environmental pollution. Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB) refers to the fibrous matter that remains after crushing sugarcane for juice extraction. This residue can be used for either energy production or non-energy applications. For energy production, SCB can be burned as the raw product or in the form of briquettes. Currently, most SCB is burned in boilers to produce steam which is utilized in factories and to power turbines for the production of electricity (cogeneration). The combustion of SCB yields ashes (bottom and fly ashes) containing high amounts of organic matter (charcoal and SCB debris) and inorganic components (around 65% weight). In this work, we present an evaluation of the calorific value of SCB and the results of our research with SCB ashes for production of charcoal briquettes with the organic fraction and of bricks and glass ceramic material using the inorganic fraction.
Keywords: Sugarcane, bagasse, briquettes, ash, energy, cogeneration
MARKET-BASED SYSTEM OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPOSTING
M. El-Hoz, Ph.D.
Department of Civil Engineering
The University of Balamand
P.O. Box 100, Tripoli, Lebanon
The objective of this study is to understand and assess the current system for waste management in the Lebanese market and carry out an evaluation of the compost market for the compost product from the UCF composting plant in north Lebanon. Regional markets are identified through workshops and surveys (questionnaire) that were conducted and the results showed that the farmers have by far the largest demand of compost and should be targeted in the short- and long-terms. This sector needs effort to raise the awareness in order to use compost produced of municipal waste since it has remained untouched up to now. Lack of product familiarity is the biggest single barrier against the use of the compost produced. Therefore, the municipality should apply aggressive marketing techniques including all distribution channels to encourage the use of compost and then increase its annual use. Approval from the Ministries of Environment and Agriculture for the use of the compost product for agricultural purposes is a critical turning point for strongly supported and enhanced consumer acceptance.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste composting, marketing, surveys, compost end-users.
PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SORTED
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH
Bei Gaoa, Karin Karlfeldt Fedje*b,c, Ann-Margret Strömvallb
aDepartment of Water & Environment, Atkins Consultants (Shenzhen) Co Ltd,
CN-200003 Shanghai, China
Tel.: +86 21 6080 2235; Fax: +86 21 6080 2101
bWater Environment Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
Tel.: +46 31 772 21 49; Fax: +46 31 772 56 95
cRecycling and Waste Management, Renova AB
Box 156, SE-401 22 Gothenburg, Sweden
Tel.: +46 31 772 21 49; Email: email@example.com
Phosphorus (P) is an essential non-renewable resource and phosphorus recovery from secondary sources has been frequently discussed. In this study, a modified acidic dissolution-precipitation method was developed for P recovery from sorted municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) samples of bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA). The initial experiments revealed that 2 h leaching in 2.5 M HCl optimized P leaching. However, large amount of toxic metals was released. Solid phase extraction (SPE) of the leachates indicated that chelating disks removed the toxic trace metals effectively, but also extracted large amounts of P. For this reason, the procedure was not included in the suggested P recovery process. The P leaching efficiencies, i.e. the ratio of P leached from the original ash, were 30–57 %. The overall P recovery efficiencies, i.e. the ratio of P recovered from the original ash, were 33–62 %. The P content in the final precipitation products varied between 1% (BA) and 2% (FA). Although in Europe the precipitation product can be applied as a fertilizer without further treatment, this is not recommended until the amount of toxic trace metals has been reduced. However, it can serve as an alternative to low grade phosphate rock.
Keywords: Phosphorus recovery, MSWI ash, acidic leaching and precipitation, SPE, chelating disk, metals
SOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC
WASTES FROM SELECTED BIOMASS SOURCES IN IBADAN, NIGERIA
Sokan-Adeaga Adewale Allen, Ana Godson R.E.E1
1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health,
College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Tel.: +234-7089-261568; +234-8037-146436
Recently there has been increased generation of lignocellulosic-based biomass resulting in environmental burden. Knowledge of the nature of these wastes is vital to their re-utilization. This paper reports a preliminary study on the source identification and physicochemical characterization of lignocellulosic wastes from selected biomass sources in Ibadan, Nigeria. Cassava Peels (CP), Yam Peels (YP), Plantain Peels (PP) and Sawdust (SD) were purposively selected. A reconnaissance survey was carried out to identify the biomasses source. The physical parameters of the wastes such as weight, volume and density were determined. The samples of the wastes were analyzed for Total Organic Carbon (T.O.C), Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Carbon-to-Nitrogen ratio (C:N). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at p=0.05. The results of the mean densities of the wastes were: CP – 342.69±8.08kg/m3; YP – 330.99±12.86 kg/m3; PP – 300.05±30.19 kg/m3 and SD – 121.09±13.21 kg/m3. The mean T.O.C, TN and TP of the various biomasses were statistically different. The C:N of SD was significantly higher than those of PP, YP and CP. This study shows that lignocelluloses are abundant and have high C: N ratio but low in phosphorus contents making them suitable substrates for biofuel production.
Keywords: Lignocellulosic wastes, Total Organic Carbon, Total Nitrogen, Phosphorus, C:N.
RECOVERY OF METALS FROM ZINC-CARBON AND
ALKALINE SPENT BATTERIES BY USING
AUTOMOTIVE SHREDDER RESIDUES
Girolamo Belardi1, Roberto Lavecchia2, Nicolò Maria Ippolito2, Franco Medici2*, Luigi Piga2 and
1Institute for Environmental Engineering and Geosciences, CNR, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
The main aim of this work is the thermal recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn after a preliminary physical treatment followed by the removal of mercury. Separation of the metals is carried out on the basis of their different phase change temperatures, in fact the boiling point of mercury and zinc are 357 °C and 906 °C, respectively, and the melting point of Mn3O4, the main Mn-bearing phase in the mixture, is 1564 °C.
After wet comminution and sieving to remove the anodic collectors and most of the chlorides contained in the mixture, chemical and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses were performed. The mixture was initially heated in an air flow at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 400 °C to eliminate mercury, then, the flow of air was turned into an inert carbon dioxide atmosphere.
The volatilization of metallic zinc starts at a temperature 850 °C. At higher temperature the reduction of zinc oxide and subsequent volatilization of metallic zinc is carried out by the carbon present in the original mixture or in the automotive shredder residue (car fluff) added from the outside. By optimization of temperature, stoichiometric ratio and residence time, a product suitable for production of new batteries after refining was obtained. The treatment residue consisted of manganese and iron oxides that could be used to produce manganese-iron alloys.
Keywords: Spent batteries; Metals recovery; Manganese; Zinc; Thermal process; Automotive Shedder Residue; Recycling
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF URBAN MUNICIPAL SOLID
WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES IN AN INDIAN STATE
Amit Vishwakarma*, Mukul Kulshrestha**, Mudit Kulshreshtha***
*Department of Civil Engineering, University Institute of Technology
R.G.P.V., Bhopal, M.P., India-462036
**Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology, MANIT-Bhopal, India-462051
Tel: +91-9425079032; Fax: +91-755-2670562
***Associate Professor of Strategy, Indian Institute of Management
Kashipur, Uttarakhand, India 244713
This paper endeavors to evolve a framework for assessing efficiencies of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) services in the urban areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. The municipal waste management in India is an essential function of the urban local government, and managing the waste remains a major problem across urban centers of all sizes. The sector is widely perceived to be misgoverned, although the efficiencies of these services have never been measured. The present work uses a non-parametric approach, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and applies three input oriented DEA Models to estimate the technical efficiencies of municipal solid waste management utilities of selected 22 urban cities/towns in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. The results of the analysis indicate that municipal operations with respect to solid waste management are highly inefficient. The larger cities exhibit better efficiencies relative to smaller cities in most cases, the latter requiring greater policy interventions. DEA results indicate that significant savings with respect to cost and employee staffing are possible if these inefficiencies are mitigated by replicating the best practices identified in the analysis. Results of the study are discussed in the context of policy issues relevant from a developing country perspective.
Keywords: Efficiencies; Municipal solid waste management Services; Data Envelopment Analysis; Policy issues
HYBRID SIMULATION-BASED PLANNING AND
EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT AND RECYCLING SYSTEMS
Xiaoran Shi, Eric D. Antmann, Nurcin Celik*, Aristotelis E. Thanos, Breanna Hayton
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA
Telephone: 1-305-284-2391; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Over the past several decades, both the volume and diversity of municipal solid waste generated by the United States has risen significantly posing a substantial and growing threat to society. Consequently, solid waste management (SWM) has become a critical issue for numerous communities. The complexity of these management schemes is exacerbated by both the number of contractors and generation units in play, and the interdisciplinary nature of SWM systems, in which performance must be analyzed from economic, operational, environmental, and social perspectives. This complex environment presents numerous challenges to the study of the modular SWM system. All agents (governments, contractors, residents, etc.) bring unique objectives and constraints to the SWM system, which need to be considered simultaneously. Numerous uncertainties also pervade the SWM system, all of which must be quantified and simulated accurately. Therefore, a hybrid agent-discrete simulation framework is proposed in this study. This hybrid framework has been developed to facilitate both global and facility-specific performance monitoring and optimization, and prepared with sufficient generality to be applicable to the real system in any given region, based on standardized database items. The proposed framework has been successfully applied at county, region, and state levels in the State of Florida.
Keywords: Modeling of large-scale complex systems, solid waste management, recycling programs, agent-discrete simulation
FROST RESISTANCE PROPERTY OF CONCRETE DOPED WITH SCRAP
RUBBER POWDER IN SODIUM SULFATE SOLUTION
Zhao Lei1,2, Han Yu3, *, Wang Baomin4, Kang Yong3, Zhang Qi5
1Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Wuhan University of Technology,
Wuhan 430070, CHINA
2Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang 453000, CHINA
3Liaoning Building Science Research Institute, Shenyang CHINA, 110005
4School of Civil Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian CHINA, 116024
5College of Electromechanical and Information Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University,
Dalian CHINA, 116600
The quick frost method was used to measure the mass loss rate and relative dynamic elastic modulus of rubberized concrete and ordinary concrete. The frost resistance property of the rubberized concrete in sodium sulfate solution environment was studied by comparing the difference of mass loss rate and relative dynamic elastic modulus between rubberized concrete and ordinary concrete. The results shown that rubberized concrete in sulfate behave superior antifreeze performance than the corresponding ordinary concrete. The scanning electron microscope, mercury intrusion method, hardening bubbles method were used to study the mechanism of rubberized concrete’s freeze-thaw durability. Through analysis, it was known that rubber powder in concrete acts as a solid air-entraining agent. Freeze-thaw damage made the micro-pores increased. The crystallization of sodium sulfate blocked the micro-holes of concrete. Fine rubber powders reduce the bubbles spacing coefficient and increase the number of bubbles. Rubber powders as micro “solid stomatal” improve the porosity of concrete, so that the antifreeze performance enhanced. Through the microstructure observation of rubberized concrete during freeze-thaw cycles it was found that rubber powders do not participate in the hydration reaction, while they appear as filling material.
Keywords: Rubberized Concrete; Sodium Sulfate Solution Erosion; Frost Resistance Property
MECHANICAL AND ALKALINE PRETREATMENT OF TWO PHASE
OLIVE MILL WASTE FOR IMPROVING METHANE PRODUCTION
Jumana Al-Mallahi*, Toru Furuichi, Kazuei Ishii
Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,
N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628,
A step of pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion has been widely studied to enhance biogas production from lingocellulosic biomass. In this study, alkaline pretreatment and mechanical pretreatment by size reduction were tested on the two phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in order to facilitate the degradation of lignocellulosic organic matter and thereafter the subsequent bioconversion to methane. For alkaline pretreatment, NaOH and CaO with concentrations in the range of 2.4 % to 30 % were tested. Following pretreatment, anaerobic digestion was conducted in batch mode for 26 days. Mechanical pretreatment did not increase the soluble compounds, measured as soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nor improved methane production. On the other hand, both CaO and NaOH were able to degrade part of the lignocellulosic organic matter to more easily degradable organic compounds. Especially NaOH was strong enough to solubilize part of the lignocellulosic organic matter; sCOD was increased to 265 ± 49.5 g O2/kg after pretreatment with 30% NaOH compared with 74.1 g O2/kg for the untreated TPOMW. However, inhibition because of high initial alkalinity or high sodium ion concentration was recognized for high NaOH dosage. Six percent NaOH increased methane production by 20.3% and 11.2% compared with the untreated and the CaO pretreated TPOMW respectively. Although NaOH concentration of 6% was found to be reasonable for improving methane production without pH neutralization, considering a full scale reactor system receiving food waste as a main substrate and the NaOH-treated TPOMW as a co-substrate, the NaOH concentration of 20% might be optimum regarding the soluble COD concentration.
Keywords: Two phase olive mill waste (TPOMW), anaerobic digestion, alkaline pretreatment, mechanical pretreatment, solubilization, bio-digestibility.
Issue 2, May 2015
A SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL TO PREDICT MUNICIPAL WASTE
GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT COSTS IN DEVELOPING AREAS
Issam A. Al-Khatib1*, Derar Eleyan2, and Joy Garfield3
1Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University
2Information Systems, Birzeit University
3Computer Science and Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science and Engineering
University of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
Email: email@example.com; Fax: 009722-2982120
This paper utilized system dynamics modeling as a new analytical approach to predict both the municipal waste generated and the associated disposal costs in developing areas. This approach facilitates the decomposition of general waste into its main components to enable municipalities to manage recyclables and find out the feasibility of performing recycling better rather than disposal by performing comparative disposal cost analysis. This study is different from previous work as it only considers population as a factor to predict the total waste generated and recycled, together with the associated expenditure and disposal cost savings.
The approach is verified by applying it to a case study in Nablus and demonstrates the evaluation of the quantity and composition of generated waste by considering population as the main influencing factor. The quantity and composition of municipal solid waste was evaluated to identify opportunities for waste recycling in the Nablus municipality. Municipal solid waste was collected and classified into eight main physical categories. The system dynamics model enable the quantity of each generated component such as plastic and metals to be anticipated together with the cost of recycling or disposal.
Keywords: System dynamic model; solid waste; waste characterization; economy; developing areas
THE APPLICABILITY OF NIMBY AND NIMTO SYNDROMES,
WILLINGNESS AND ABILITY TO PAY FOR IMPROVED SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT AMONG NAIROBI HOUSEHOLDS
Augustine Otieno Afullo
Maasai Mara University, P.O. BOX 861-20500, Narok, Kenya
Formerly: Assistant Professor and Fulbright Scholar-In-Residence (SIR), North Central College, 40N Brainard Street, Naperville 60540, Illinois / 213N Brainard Street, APR 2R, Naperville 60540, Illinois, USA
Tel: 1-630-802-9759; 1-630-637-5370; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nairobi’s residential areas are chocked with garbage. It was hypothesized that residents exhibit a “Not in My Backyard” (NIMBY) and “Not in my terms of office” (NIMTO) syndromes, with challenges in willingness and ability to pay (WATP) for improved solid waste management (SWM) services. 30 key informant interviews, 20 Focus group discussions, and pre-tested HH questionnaires were administered in two phases in 2007 and 2010, using sample sizes of 430 and 600 Households respectively. At most 39% residents were able to pay for improved SWM services. In 2007, 78% of Nairobi HHs had no SWM service, and by 2010, 70% had it. The effective demand is exhibited by the US$ 1.53 they are WATP for monthly garbage collection, maintained at statistically the same level in 2010. Open dumping as the proxy indicator of NIMBY had a prevalence of under 30% down from over 70% in 2007. There was also evidence HHs exhibited the NIMTO syndrome, with 54% proposing the government, NCC or a sponsor purchases them a household bin. There is need for intensive public education on SWM, so that households, through CBOs, directly participate in urban neighbourhood cleaning, and venture into waste for wealth through informal sector incorporation into environmental management.
Keywords: Solid waste management, Nairobi Kenya, willingness to pay (WTP), ability to pay (ATP), willingness and ability to pay (WATP), not in my backyard (NIMBY), not in my terms of office (NIMTO).
REDUCTION OF CORROSION OF REINFORCING STEEL IN
CONCRETE USING ALKALI ASH MATERIAL
Hossein Rostami1, Fernando Tovia2 Reza Masoodi3 and Mozhgan Bahadory4
1Professor of Science and Engineering, Philadelphia University, Philadelphia PA, 19144
Phone: (215) 951-2877, Fax: (215) 951-6812, Email: email@example.com
2Associate Professor of Engineering, Philadelphia University, Philadelphia PA, 19144
Phone: (215) 951-5652, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
3Associate Professor of Engineering, Philadelphia University, Philadelphia PA, 19144
Phone: (215) 951-5630, Email: email@example.com
4Assistant Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Community College of Philadelphia, Philadelphia PA, 19130
Phone: (215)751-8616, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Approximately 850 million tons of coal are consumed for electric generation and industrial use in the United States each year. This generates about 100 million tons of by-products including bottom ash, fly ash, flue gas desulfurization sludge, and boiler slag. One of these by-products, fly ash, has a potential to reduce the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concert. In this paper, the effect of Alkali activated Ash Material (AAM) on mechanical properties and corrosion protection are investigated. Our experiments showed that coating the rebar with AAM reduces the corrosion rate significantly. The most important advantage of using AAM coated rebar over epoxy coated rebar is their corrosion rate when the coating is damaged. The corrosion rate in a rebar coated with AAM remained almost the same after damaging the coating, while the corrosion rate of a rebar with damaged epoxy coating was the same as an uncoated rebar.
Keywords: Fly ash, Alkali Activated Ash Material (AAM), Corrosion, Rebar, Concrete, Coating
POULTRY WASTE GENERATION, MANAGEMENT AND THE
ENVIRONMENT: A CASE OF MINNA, NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA
1*Peter Aderemi Adeoye, 1Hasfalina Che Man, 1Mohd. Amin Soom
2Ahmad Mohammed Thamer, 3Akinbile Christopher Oluwakunmi
1Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University Putra, Darul Ehsan, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Civil Engineering, University Putra, Darul Ehsan, Selangor, Malaysia
3Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology,
To develop an acceptable manure management and pollution prevention plan in poultry production, accurate accounting of waste generation and nutrient concentration of the waste need to be ascertained. In view of this, a field study was conducted in Minna, Nigeria to assess quantity of waste generated and the quality of the wastes in selected registered poultry farms in the town. This is with a view to knowing present waste generation status and managements strategies with respect to environmental protection and to recommend appropriate management methods if the present practice is not acceptable. Questionnaires focusing on farm information, birds’ information and waste management were administered in the farms. Fresh poultry waste samples (manure) were collected from layer, broiler and cockerel sections of three of the selected farms at birds growth stage of 6 and 12 weeks respectively. The samples were analyzed for nitrates, phosphates and bacteriological parameters. Findings from the questionnaires showed that a total of 2,131,400 layers, 1,224,840 broilers and 848,570 cockerels which amount to a total of 4,204,810 birds are raised annually in confinement in the farms covering an area of 170 hectares of land. From calculation, the farms generate 100.97 metric tons of dead birds over a brooding cycle with about 26,565 metric ton of waste excluding slaughter house litter and hatchery wastes. Laboratory analysis results showed that the waste samples contain values as high as 206.75mg/g and 34.21mg/g of nitrates and phosphates respectively. Bacteriological values recorded are 25767.21cfu/100mg, 48214cfu/100mg and 17647.9mg/g for faecal coliform, total coliform and faecal streptococci respectively. Management of the waste is poor in the farms visited as indiscriminate dumping on land and burning are major waste management systems in these farms. Only a few adopt re-feed method, dead birds are buried without minding the shallow water table of the area. None of the farm visited adopt modern green disposal as waste management strategy. This waste generation and management method need to be changed to safe Minna environment from imminent hazards. It is therefore recommended that the poor management system of land application should be replaced with modern management strategy like green disposal, gasification, composting and re-feeding. These methods are more environmental friendly and can generate of resources from the waste.
Keywords: Environmental protection, green disposal, manure management and poultry farms
ENHANCING BIOGAS YIELD FROM COW DUNG BY CO-DIGESTING WITH
CHICKEN AND SWINE MANURES AT DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS
G. A. Ogunwande*, O. A. Adeagbo, S. O. Ojo
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering
Obafemi Awolowo University
Tel.: +234 803 4007128
Cow dung (CD) was co-digested with chicken manure (CM) and with swine manure (SM) at different proportions to enhance biogas yield in a batch type anaerobic digester. Cow dung alone (used as control), and CD:CM and CD:SM at mix proportions of 70:30, 50:50, 30:70 and 0:100 (CM or SM alone) (w/w dry basis) were digested for 105 days. The results showed that co-digestion had significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on the biogas yield. The individual manures showed that the average biogas yield (L kg-1 VS fed day-1) and cumulative biogas yield (L kg-1 VS fed) were higher for CD (1.26 and 131.36, respectively) than CM (0.99 and 103.0, respectively) and SM (0.38 and 12.36, respectively). The average and cumulative biogas yields of CD:CM mixtures were higher while that of CD:SM mixtures were lower than that of CD alone. Of the mixtures experimented, CD:CM (50:50) and CD:SM (30:70) had highest average yield (2.66 and 1.21, respectively) and cumulative yield (271.8 and 125.3, respectively). It was therefore concluded that co-digesting CD with CM enhanced biogas production, with the optimum mix proportion of CD:CM (50:50).
Keywords: Co-digestion; Biogas; Cow dung; Chicken manure; Swine manure
MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF ABATTOIR SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN MINNA, NIGERIA
I.E. Ahaneku1 and C.F. Njemanze2
Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering,
Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
P.M.B 65, Minna, Niger State
Material flow analysis (MFA) is an excellent tool that describes the static situation of different materials flows between different subsystems in a defined system. This study estimated the annual amount of the total waste generation in Minna main abattoir; it calculated abattoir waste flow and employed MFA using the waste cube model to illustrate the flows of abattoir waste from waste generators to waste disposers. Results indicated that a total of 66,630 cows and 13,884 goats were slaughtered in Minna main abattoir. This generated 849.54 tons of blood, 550.39 tons of intestinal content, 814.83 tons of bone and 437.55 tons of waste tissues between 2010 and 2012. The abattoir waste flow indicated that the dominant waste treatment methods of Minna main abattoir was re-use and recycling, accounting for 72.60% of waste disposal on the average from 2010 to 2012, whereas blood accounted for 32.03% of the total abattoir waste for the same period. The study has shown how solid wastes from Minna abattoir can be managed and converted into value-added products for effective utilization. The solid wastes generated can be re-used for land application as manure or recycled for other income generating activities like animal feed and aquaculture.
Keywords: Material flow analysis, abattoir, waste generation, re-use and recycling, Minna.
THE EU WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
DIRECTIVE: THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PRODUCER
RESPONSIBILITY ACROSS THE EU-27
Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth (IRCrES)
National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Milan
Tel. +39 – 02 23699515
This article explores how the producer responsibility (PR) principle of the EU Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) 2002/96/EC has been transposed and implemented by the EU-27 Member States, focusing in particular on business to consumer WEEE. It adopts a systematic approach in identifying the conceptual, legal, and practical elements that need to be evaluated with this regard and offers an empirical overview of how they have been shaped at the national level. The article analyses the characteristics (both similarities and discrepancies) of the systems actually in place in the EU Member States to collect and manage WEEE. Some of them can be explained based on the discretion that the WEEE Directive allows to the Member States on many aspects which are relevant for the implementation of PR. Others, instead, are the result of an incorrect transposition/implementation of the WEEE Directive, fostered by the uncertainties surrounding the PR concept and the practical obstacles to its implementation.
Keywords: WEEE, producer responsibility, collective compliance schemes, eco-design
CO-PYROLYSIS STUDY OF POLYLACTIC ACID AND
POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE PLASTIC WASTES
Hua-Shan Tai1*, Jui-LanYeh2
1Hua-Shan Tai, Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering,
National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Jhuoyue Rd., Nanzih, Kaohsiung City, 811, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Email: email@example.com, Fax: 886-7-6011608; Telephone: 886-7-6011540
2Jui-LanYeh, Graduate Institute of Engineering Science and Technology,
National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Jhuoyue Rd., Nanzih, Kaohsiung City, 811, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Separating plastics made of polyactic acid (PLA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can be difficult; consequently, their recycling values are affected. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of recycling mixed PLA and PET wastes by co-pyrolysis. Specimens prepared from different ratios of preprocessed PLA and PET wastes were subjected to relevant property studies followed by thermogravimetric (TG) and reaction kinetic analyses. Subsequently, pyrolytic studies were conducted based on the obtained TG reaction conditions to investigate energy yields of pyrolytic reactions. Results indicated that the HHV of PLA and PET were approximately 18.26 and 22.85 MJ/kg, respectively and those of the mixtures were between these two values. Each specimen has a combustible portion of greater than 96% and a maximum decomposition temperature between 618K and 736K. Greater PET ratios were found to result in higher activation energies and pre-exponential factors. Additionally, PLA ratios were positively correlated to the mass yield of gaseous products, whereas PET ratios were positively correlated to the yields of solid and condensation products. Unless energy yield is a major concern, co-pyrolysing PLA and PET wastes may avoid the need to separate PLA and PET and may effectively reduce the volume of plastic wastes.
Keywords: Polylactic acid, polyethylene terephthalate, pyrolysis, resource recycling, renewable energy
DESIGN OF VERTICAL WELLS FOR LEACHATE RECIRCULATION
IN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS USING TWO-PHASE MODELING
Krishna R. Reddy1*, Professor
Rajiv K. Giri*, Graduate Research Assistant
Hanumanth S. Kulkarni*, Graduate Research Assistant
*University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Civil & Materials Engineering
842 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607
Vertical wells (VW), commonly used for leachate recirculation in bioreactor landfills, have an advantage over other recirculation systems as they can be installed either during the construction of a landfill or after its closure. Currently, the design of VWs is based on very limited field and laboratory investigations and modeling studies that has resulted in a large variation in their performance in the field. The main objective of this paper is to perform a detailed parametric study using two-phase flow model and develop design charts for the rational design and operation of VWs. Effects of the leachate recirculation rate, hydraulic properties of the MSW, and depth of VW on MSW wetted diameter, wetted area, developed pore pressures (water and landfill gas), and the length of time to reach the steady-state condition are studied. Modeling was performed for both homogeneous and isotropic, and heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW (most representatives of field conditions). An example of the application of VWs is presented through the design charts for this field system that are developed as part of the study. Overall, the design charts provide useful guidance to the design and operation of VWs during leachate recirculation.
Keywords: Vertical well, two-phase flow, moisture distribution, pore water pressure, pore gas pressure, design chart
Issue 1, February 2015
STUDY OF SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERED BIOREACTOR LANDFILL (SEBL)
FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES
Bhagawan S. Patil
Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Powai, Mumbai-400076, INDIA
D. N. Singh*
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Powai, Mumbai-400076, INDIA
Tel.: +91-22-2576-7340; Fax: +91-22-2576-7302
Population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization, leads to the generation of large quantities of municipal solid waste, MSW. Most of the metropolitan cities resort to landfilling, which is comparatively an economical method for disposal of the MSW. However, due to huge quantity of the MSW and problems associated with land acquisition for new landfills, present landfills are overloaded with excess quantity of the MSW. This situation has an extensively high environmental impact due to emission of the gases into the atmosphere and contamination of the subsurface soil mass and the groundwater. Further, MSW transportation from different localities to a centralized landfill area is a cumbersome task. In this context, to overcome such problems of the present day society, development of decentralized (read miniature) sustainable engineered bioreactor landfill, SEBL, for the small communities appears to be a panacea. With this in view, efforts have been made to develop a methodology that would facilitate monitoring the decomposition of the MSW, by employing advance instrumentation and controlling its moisture content by timely leachate recirculation under anaerobic conditions. The utility and efficiency of this methodology in achieving desired results, and hence in minimizing degradation of the geoenvironment due to disposal of the MSW, has been demonstrated.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste, small community, bioreactor landfill, insitu monitoring, FDR probe, temperature measurements.
USING DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION IN URBAN SOLID WASTE SELECTION
Josiane Palma Lima*, Fabiano Leal*
*Federal University of Itajubá
Institute of Production Engineering and Management
Av. BPS, 1303. Pinheirinho – 37500903, Itajubá, MG
This research aimed to examine alternatives which increased the productivity of recyclable materials selection in an association of recyclable materials gatherers. The study was conducted in conjunction with the Urban Solid Waste (USW) trash gatherers association of Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Computational simulation was chosen as the research method, starting with the project’s conceptual modeling phase (IDEF-SIM technique), upon which a computer model was built and tests were conducted to aid decision-making. Data were collected by means of observation, interviews and questionnaires in order to model the materials separated by the association under study and, in turn, study scenarios. Computational simulation enabled the visualization of the flow of materials in the process, the bottleneck indication and the experiments to simulate scenarios in order to increase the association’s productivity.
Keywords: Urban Solid Waste (USW), Simulation, Productivity, Aiding Decision-Making
THE ‘REAL NAPPIES FOR LONDON’ SCHEME 2007-2012: KEY
FINDINGS TO DRIVE A FUTURE WASTE PREVENTION
AGENDA THROUGH LANDFILL REDUCTION
Charles Warner1*, Hilary Vick2, Paul Phillips1, Andrew Lappage3
1University of Northampton, School of Science and Technology, Environmental and Material Sciences
Avenue Campus, St George’s Avenue, Northampton, NN2 6JD, UK
2Real Nappies for London (RNfL), The Grayston Centre, 28 Charles Square, London N1 6HT, UK
3North London Waste Authority (NLWA), Unit 169, Lee Valley Technopark, Ashley Road, N17 9LN, UK
To help reduce disposable nappy (DN) solid waste to Landfill in England, the ‘Women’s Environmental Network’ (WEN) developed ‘Real Nappies for London’ (RNfL) a scheme, in partnership with Local Authority, to promote the use of real nappies (RN) within several Boroughs of London. The scheme issued a voucher to residents who registered, which could be redeemed against the purchase of RN products. Over a period of 5 years from 2007 to 2012, RNfL issued 9,653 vouchers, of which 7,047 were redeemed resulting in a proposed prevention of 6,962 tonnes of DN waste to Landfill. This is equated to a Local Authority saving of around £647,466 in Landfill Tax, and disposal costs for the period, with an estimated cost to RNfL of £63,423, achieving a cost effective ratio of 10:1. In the absence of a sustainable disposal route for DN waste, increasing the use of RNs is a valuable waste prevention tool working at the top of the waste hierarchy, preventing DN use and disposal that can be rolled out across England. Success of the RNfL scheme was greatest in a context of social cohesion with community and Local Authority support. The outcome of this research suggests that the RNfL scheme has made a valuable contribution to the reduction of solid waste to Landfill.
Keywords: Disposable Nappies; Reusable Nappies; Solid Waste; Landfill Diversion; Zero Waste Places initiative
CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOMOBILE SHREDDER RESIDUE
FOR PURPOSE OF ITS THERMAL CONVERSION
Haydary Juma, Susa Dalibor
Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology
Slovak University of Technology
Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava
Tel.: ++4212 59325252
The aim of this work was to develop an experimentally based model for characterization of automobile shredder residue (ASR, auto fluff) for purposes of its thermal conversion by pyrolysis, gasification or incineration. Composition of ASR was determined by the separation of a 10 kg representative sample into its basic components. Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses of individual components and also of the representative sample of ASR were provided by a simultaneous TG/DSC analyzer. Elemental analysis of mixed ASR and individual components of ASR was provided by an elemental analyzer. The bomb calorimetric method was used to determine the higher heating value of all individual components and also of mixed ASR. A model for the determination of the following parameters of mixed ASR was proposed: kinetics of thermal decomposition, heat of thermal decomposition, proximate and elemental analyses and higher heating value. The model enables the determination of the mentioned parameters by entering the content of individual types of waste present in ASR.
Keywords: Auto fluff, Automobile shredder residue, Pyrolysis, Thermal decomposition
OPTIMUM LOCATION ANALYSIS FOR WOOD WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT
IN ILORIN, NIGERIA
O.A. Lasode1*, A.O. Balogun2, A.S. Aremu3, K.A. Akande4, M.C. Ali1, A.O. Garuba1
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
2Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ilorin, Nigeria
3Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
4Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Availability of feedstock and suitability of location are major decision criteria in siting a waste-to-energy facility. In this study, the amount of wood waste available for energy generation in Ilorin, Nigeria was evaluated and an assessment was made on twenty potential energy facility sites. The Single Facility Location with Rectilinear-Distance Model was employed to determine an optimum location for the energy generating facility based on the impact of four major constraining factors; the net amount of waste available, transportation cost, social effect, and environmental effect. The study revealed that 61.25 % (73.92 tons per day) of the total wood waste generated is left unutilized and the optimum location for a waste-to-energy facility corresponded to (X, Y) coordinates (940.1253, 507.4959). This spatial position unfortunately coincided with an existing recreational facility, thus making it unsuitable. The most feasible location away from the optimum location was chosen through the construction of a contour map and it corresponds to coordinates (939.2536, 507.8525), which is within the Industrial zone of the City.
Keywords: Wood waste, energy facility, optimum location, Ilorin, Nigeria
OPTIMIZATION OF OPERATING PARAMETERS OF WINDROW
COMPOSTING OF ANIMAL MANURES
Bassim E. Abbassi1*, Samih Abubaker2, Ehab Al-Manaseer3, Abdallah Nassour4
Basem Dababneh5, Walid Shqairat6, Mustafa Al-Jaar
1, 2,3,5,6Al-Balqa’ Applied University-Jordan, 4University of Rostock-Germany
*Visiting Professor at the University of Guelph-Canada
In Jordan, animal manures are usually used in agriculture without any processing causing serious environmental problems. This work aimed at determining the optimum mixing ratio of different types of animal manures and bulking agent (plant residues) to produce safe organic fertilizers through windrow composting technique. Composting was carried out at different C/N ratios ranging from 20 to 40. All mixture piles showed heat development (maximum temperature between 65 and 70 ºC) during the first four weeks of composting. The composting needed about 12 weeks to complete the two composting phases and produce stabilized products. Maximum C/N ratio reduction was observed in mixtures with low initial C/N ratio. The piles with initial C/N ratio between 25 and 35 showed optimum composting performance with relatively high maturation index (Mi). Optimum composting process was found in the piles consisted of 100 % cow or poultry manure. At the end of composting, the volumes of the piles decreased by 40 to 50 % with about 15 % increase in the final product bulk density. It was found that there is a 1:1 ratio between the volume of added water and the volume of final product.
Keywords: Composting; windrow; organic waste; animal manure; maturation index
CO-FIRING OF ENTEROMORPHA PROLIFERA ALGAE AND RTC COAL IN A DOWN
DRAFT GASIFIER: MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION AND FLOW SIMULATION
Isam Janajreh*1, Syed Shabbar Raza1, Sherien Elagroudy2
1Masdar Institute, Abu Dhabi, UAE
2Ain Shams University, Cairo Egypt
The potential energy that algae possess has led to re-emergence of a worldwide interest in it as a biofuel feedstock. Algae derived fuel takes many pathways and challenges. Algae are enthusiastically embraced in the energy sector as the feedstock which overcomes the current market and technical hurdles. This is because of its diversity in composition, co-production and conversion pathways. The quest of finding/engineering algae strains that exhibit highest growth, production rate and a lipid content is never ending. In this work, the whole alga is considered for gasification. Due to its low energy density, it is being considered side by side to coal co-firing, thereby reducing the fossil base CO2 emission additional to its economic gain. Gasification generates syngas that is used to fuel gas turbine at higher conversion metrics than mass incineration. Starting with material characterization and inferring their unit molar formula, gasification under CO2 and H2O moderation is perused following equilibrium conditions based on Gibbs energy minimization principle. Metrics are evaluated and accordingly high fidelity reactive flow analysis for the downdraft gasifier is conducted at the optimal conditions. Systematic gasification conditions under H2O lead to higher gasification efficiency of nearly 8 points compared to CO2. Results of the two approaches are compared and 5% efficiency difference is calculated using equilibrium based versus CFD.
Keywords: Algae conversion, gasification, syngas, gasification efficiency, CFD kinetic model
APPLICATION OF MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING TOOLS
FOR TECHNOLOGY CHOICE IN TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE FOR LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT BODIES—
A CASE STUDY OF KERALA, INDIA
Centre for Technology Alternatives in Rural Areas (CTARA)
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Powai P.O, Mumbai – 4000076, INDIA
Centre for Technology Alternatives in Rural Areas (CTARA)
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Powai P.O, Mumbai – 4000076, INDIA
Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) has become an issue of increasing importance around the world with far reaching implications. In India, one of the major reasons for failure in MSWM is identified as lack of financial, infrastructural and manpower resources in Local Self Government Bodies (LSGBs). This results in attempts for adhoc solutions including improper selection of technology. Also, local conditions of sustainability remain unaddressed in technology choice. There is a need to assist the LSGBs in decision making considering these factors.
The current study proposes the use of the Multi Criteria Decision Making Tool (MCDM) of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) to be applied in two stages. This tool helps to address the dual challenge of considering the sustainability criteria of varying importance, as well as constraints in skills and expertise existing at each locality. The first stage evaluation is carried out separately for each of the sustainability criteria for the wider governance region where expertise and resource support are available. The second stage, at local levels, can make use of the first stage evaluation to arrive at an appropriate decision depending on the local conditions. A case study of the state of Kerala, India has been used to develop and demonstrate the proposed model.
A clear preference for decentralised technology options emerges from the study, for the city of Thiruvananthapuram in the state of Kerala. This stands in contrast to the centralised model of composting and landfill which was implemented and has failed in the city.
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste Management, Technology Choice, Local Self Government Bodies, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Simple Additive Weighting.
ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
IN RURAL DISTRICT SERVICE CENTRES: THE CASE OF NGANGU
RESIDENTIAL AREA IN CHIMANIMANI DISTRICT, ZIMBABWE
L. Chapungu1, H. Zinhiva, N.E. Marange
Great Zimbabwe University
Department of Geography and Environmental Science
Box 1235 Masvingo
Assessment of waste management systems of district service centres has not been widely done in developing countries both at regional and national level. This creates a knowledge gap as issues of waste management at such levels remain veiled in obscurity. Moreover, it leaves the local sanitation authorities with largely weak value chains that provide inefficient services to the local residents as they remain uninformed. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the generation, storage, collection, transportation and disposal of domestic solid waste at district service centre level. A case study approach was used to enable an empirical inquiry that investigates the contemporary phenomenon within its real life extent. A stratified random sampling procedure was followed to select 120 households that participated in the survey. Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions and interviews were used to infer data from the selected participants. Results show that the local authority runs a closed waste management system devoid of local policy. It is characterised by uncontrolled waste generation, highly ineffective storage facilities, ineffective collection system and inefficient transportation and disposal mechanisms. There is need for the re-engineering of the waste management system and adoption of an integrated approach which incorporates a participatory approach to the management of domestic solid wastes.
Keywords: Domestic solid waste, waste generation, waste storage, waste collection and waste disposal.