LEACHATE CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN BANGLADESH AND THEIR TREATMENT: TEMPORAL VARIATION AND LEACHATE POLLUTION INDEX
Islam M. Rafizul and Saddam Hosan
Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET)
This study illustrates the characteristics and contamination potential through leachate pollution index (LPI) of raw leachate as well as leachate after treated with chemical coagulants for both the dry and rainy seasons. The leachate samples were collected at a regular intervals of time from four distinct solid waste disposal sites—sanitary disposal (Dhaka), open disposal (Chittagong), sanitary disposal (Khulna) and open disposal (Rajshahi)—at four cities in Bangladesh. The study was carried out from November 2013 to September 2014; these periods covered both the dry and rainy seasons. In the laboratory, standard test methods were followed for the determination of physical and chemical as well as organic and nitrogen compounds in leachate samples. The leachate samples of dry season showed comparatively the higher pollutant concentration than that of rainy seasons of the selected disposal sites. Based on results, it was observed that the concentration of raw leachate and consequently its LPI values exceed the permissible limits of maximum leachate discharge standards. Here it can be noted that the leachate generated from the selected disposal sites is highly contaminated and exceed the LPI value 5.77 (Bangladesh) as well as 7.38 (India and Hong Kong) of maximum leachate discharge standards and proper treatment will have to be ensured before discharging the leachate into the natural streams. In the laboratory, then the leachate was treated using FeCl3 at optimum dosage as well as the concentration and consequently the values of LPI of treated leachate were found within the limit of maximum leachate discharge standards.
Keywords: Solid waste, Leachate characteristics, Seasonal variation, Contamination potential, Leachate pollution index, Leachate treatment, Disposal sites
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ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HAND-DUG WELLS AROUND ABANDONED DUMPSITE IN IBADAN METROPOLIS, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA
*1S. A Ganiyu, 1O. T. Olurin, 1S. B. Otun
1Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State Nigeria
A geochemical investigation of groundwater samples from hand-dug wells around an abandoned dumpsite was carried out to determine the level of suitability for drinking and domestic uses. Ten groundwater samples from hand-dug wells at different proximities to the abandoned dumpsite were accessed. Physical and chemical parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), pH, temperature, Cl-, No3-, SO42-, CO3-, HCO3-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Pb2+, and Cu2+ were determined. Interpretation of Piper diagram showed the type of water predominates in the study area to be CaHCO3 type, an indication of freshwater status based on hydro-chemical facies. On the basis of Piper diagram, Alkaline earth (Ca2+, Mg2+) and weak acids (CO3-, HCO3-) significantly exceed alkalis (Na+, K+) and strong acids (Cl-, SO42-). The abundance of the major ions is as follows: Mg2+>Ca2+> Na+>K+ = HCO3> CO32-> No3-> SO42-> Cl-. Heavy metals analyzed in the water samples were within the WHO and NSDWQ permissible limits. High Total Hardness and TDS values in few places require pre-treatment of water from concerned hand-dug wells so as to enhance their suitability for domestic purposes.
Keywords: Dumpsite, groundwater, hydrochemical facies, freshwater, heavy metals
Paschal Okiroro Iniaghe1,2 and Gilbert Umaye Adie1*
1Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Chemistry, Federal University Otuoke, Nigeria
Rapid increase in the use of flat screen image display devices in recent times has led to the replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) image display devices. The environmental problems arising from CRT disposal is primarily due to the glass’ high lead content. With landfilling being non-environmentally friendly, there is need to develop sustainable management methods. This study therefore investigated the incorporation of finely ground (< 0.6 mm) mixture of panel, funnel and neck CRT glass in concrete at 0%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% wt/wt replacement for sand, from where an optimum composition was obtained. The workability, compressive strength, elemental composition and lead leaching behaviour of concrete specimens were studied. The test results indicated that the workability of fresh concrete was negatively affected with increasing glass content. The compressive strength at 20% replacement level (29.4 MPa) was higher than the reference (20.3 MPa) by 44.8% after curing for 90 days. It was observed that lead concentration increased with increasing glass content but calcium decreased proportionally while lead leachability was within regulatory limits. This investigation thus revealed that finely ground CRT glass at 20% wt/wt replacement possesses the potential to be used in concrete as a partial replacement for fine aggregate.
Keywords: Cathode ray tube glass, lead content, concrete, compressive strength, lead leaching
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A. B. Gunjala, B. P. Kapadnisa*, N. J. Pawarb
aDepartment of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411007
bDepartment of Geology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411007
Tel: 020-25690643; Fax: 020-25690643
Heavy metal pollution of soil, water and air is one of the major issues many countries are facing. The fungi were isolated from the compost and compost yard soil and identified as Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus and studied for their ability to sequester heavy metals from solution. The sequestration of Zn and Pb was more by A. oryzae which was 2.96 and 9.93 mg g-1, respectively, Cd by A. fumigatus which was 19.24 mg g-1 and Ni by A. clavatus which was 6.35 mg g-1 from the mixed metal solutions. Sequestration of Cd, Pb and Ni from the mixed metal solutions was insignificant using the mixed biomass. Sequestration of Zn was more by A. oryzae which was 24.73 mg g-1, Cd by A. fumigatus which was 19.94 mg g-1, while Pb and Ni by A. clavatus which was 14.06 and 10.38 mg g-1, respectively from the individual metal solutions. The sequestration of heavy metals was not effective from individual metal solutions using the mixed biomass. The optimum biomass was 0.5 g, PH and temperature were 5.0 and 38oC, respectively where more than 95% sequestration of Zn, Cd and Ni was found by A. clavatus, A. oryzae and A. fumigatus respectively. The sequestration of heavy metals Zn, Pb and Ni mg g-1 by the fungal biomass increased with increase in metal concentration. Biosorption of heavy metals will be uncomplicated, reusable and rapid for control of heavy metal pollution.
Keywords: Heavy metal; Compost; Biosorption; Biological; Waste-treatment
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEACHATE
GENERATED FROM LANDFILL LYSIMETER
USING COAL FLY ASH AS A LANDFILL COVER MATERIAL
GENERATED FROM LANDFILL LYSIMETER
USING COAL FLY ASH AS A LANDFILL COVER MATERIAL
Andy Mizwar1, Yulinah Trihadiningrum2
1Department of Environmental Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
2Department of Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia
The present study was undertaken to investigate the characteristics of leachate generated from landfill lysimeters where coal fly ash is used as a cover layer. Three experimental conditions were tested in triplicate during 100 days using nine laboratory-scale landfill lysimeters. Lysimeters A were loaded purely with municipal solid waste (MSW) and considered as control treatments. Lysimeters B and C were filled with MSW and two different cover types, i.e. soil and coal fly ash, respectively. The cumulative quantity of the leachate generated from lysimeter using coal fly ash cover was found in 40.87% less than the lysimeter using soil cover and 56.53% less than the lysimeter filled solely with MSW. In addition, the lysimeter using coal fly ash cover generated the lesser values of BOD and COD, and concentrations of iron, manganese, lead, and total suspended solids (TSS), compared with the lysimeters using soil cover and control.
Keywords: Coal fly ash, cover, landfill, leachate, lysimeter, municipal solid waste
Paul O. Awoyera a, Joseph O. Akinmusurua*, Julius M. Ndambuki b and Sandra S. Lucas c
aDepartment of Civil Engineering, Covenant University, PMB 1023 Ota, Nigeria
bDepartment of Civil Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria South Africa
cDepartment of Engineering Science, University of Greenwich, United Kingdom
Ceramic waste deposit poses a number of environmental challenges, ranging from air, water and soil contaminations. Thus, the present investigation is centred on evaluating the technical viability and environmental benefits of using ceramic floor and wall tile wastes in sustainable concrete mixes. Both geotechnical and microstructural analysis were performed on three phases of the ceramics waste preparation: as powder, fine and coarse, and compared with the natural aggregates. Regarding the physical properties, ceramic tile aggregates performed adequately well as the natural aggregates, except for the high water absorption observed in ceramics. Chemical composition tests conducted on the ceramic tile indicated that it possesses 64.557% silica, which is a pronounced feature of pozzolans. Consequently, ceramic floor and wall tile wastes can be processed for reuse in concrete.
Keywords: Aggregates; ceramics; cement; cementitious material; microstructure; sustainability
PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ADSORPTION ISOTHERM STUDY FOR ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCED FROM PALM DATE TREE PRUNING
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering
Jubail University College, Male Branch, Royal Commission – Jubail
P.O. Box 10074, Jubail Industrial City 31961, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Telephone: +966 1-3 342 9000 x 1342
Demand of rapidly increasing industries and more stringent wastewater treatment regulations nictitates the supply of low cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment. In Saudi Arabia a substantial amount of foreign exchange is involved in importing activated carbon (AC) to meet the requirements. In the present study locally available low cost waste materials palm date tree pruning was utilized to produce AC of comparable quality. AC was produced from palm date tree pruning in the laboratory using chemical activation with phosphoric acid which allows AC preparation at relatively low temperature and requires minimum capital investment. Characterization of produced AC revealed that it has BET-surface area comparable to commercially available AC. Low ash content and higher hardness making it suitable for water and wastewater treatment. Cost of prepared AC found to be less than $0.3/kg. Adsorption studies showed that reactive yellow 145 (RY-145) dye (which is an important contaminant of industrial wastewater) removal rate increased with increase in contact time at the initial phase, which decreases with time until steady state reached. Study also revealed that removal of RY-145 reached at equilibrium for 20, 30 and 40 mg/L solutions in 34, 43 and 49 hours contact time respectively. Adsorption data of RY-145 dye fitted to various adsorption models Linear, Freundlich, Tempken as well as Langmuir isotherm showed reasonable correlation, however, Freundlich isotherm was found best to describe the RY-145 dye adsorption on produced AC.
Idowu Adeyemi1, Chaouki Ghenai2, Isam Janajreh*1
1Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Masdar Institute, Abu Dhabi, UAE
2University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE
P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Gasification gives the solid hydrocarbon waste a better chance to be used efficiently through the combined cycle and at a much less harmful emission. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste, and biomass or industrial waste that hold a large fraction of hydrocarbon is emerging as a common practice to reduce their environmental impact. However, the gasifier conditions and design need to be adjusted according to the composition of the feedstock, and that needs to be tuned and optimized. This work assesses the gasification conditions of three different Kentucky coal and biomass mixtures (10% biomass, 25% biomass and 50% biomass) in an entrained flow gasifier. It is presented numerically in an attempt to obtain a comparative analysis between the optimum operation conditions for the three feedstocks. The numerical model uses an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, with discrete-phase model of feedstock in a continuous model of oxidant. This model also takes into account the turbulent flow (SST k-ω model), gas phase gasification (Species Transport), particles devolatilization (Kobayashi Two-Competing Rate model), heterogeneous char reaction (Multiple Surface reaction), particle dispersion by turbulent flow (Stochastic Discrete Random Walk model), radiation (P1 model) and solid particle distribution (Rosin Rammler model). The temperature distribution and product distribution of the developed model is captured. There was an increasing trend, from 10% biomass to 50% biomass, of the gas composition of CO2 and H2O in the gasifier. However, there was a decreasing trend, from 10% biomass to 50% biomass, of the gas composition of CO and H2. The role of particle size showed that larger sizes (534nm) gives less syngas yield as compared to smaller sizes (134nm).
Keywords: Gasification, IGCC, Entrained flow, Numerical model, Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Daniel A. Glatstein1, Marcos A. Montoro2, Magalí E. Carro Pérez3, Franco M. Francisca4*
1Adjunct Professor and Posdoctoral Fellow, Ph.D.
2Adjunct Professor, Ph.D.
3Adjunct Professor, Ph.D.
4*Adjunct Professor and Independent Researcher, Ph.D.
Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ingeniería y Tecnología (IDIT), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (UNC) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Avda. Vélez
Sarsfield 1611 (X5016CGA), Córdoba, Argentina
Telephone: +54 351 5353800/ext. 29836
Soil layers in landfill liners are usually considered non-reactive, and the biological activity in the barrier is neglected for the calculation of the liner life span. The purpose of this research is to highlight the relative importance of hydraulic conductivity, chemical retardation and biological clogging on the transport of heavy metals through landfill liners. Mass transport was computed considering semi-empirical equations to determine contaminant leakage through geomembranes’ imperfections, and Darcy´s law and advection–diffusion equation were used to evaluate the transport through soil liners. Hydraulic conductivity values were modified considering its reduction due to biological effects, and different retardation factors were considered to evaluate heavy metal adsorption on soil particles. The effect of compacted soil barrier thickness in specific discharge and breakthrough time was evaluated. Obtained results showed that the use of a geomembrane results in higher breakthrough time for composite liners when the prevailing transport mechanism is advection. Results also indicated the importance of considering bioclogging on the coupled hydraulic and chemical flow that determine the breakthrough time.
Keywords: Geosynthetic; landfill liner; bioclogging; leachate; hydraulic conductivity; heavy metals
EVALUATION OF BIO-METHANE PRODUCTION
FROM ABATTOIR WASTEWATER: EFFECT OF INOCULUM
TO SUBSTRATE RATIO (ISR) AND CO-DIGESTION
A.O. Ogunbayo1*, O.O. Olanipekun1 and E.O. Ebikade1
1Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Lagos, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
An evaluation of the bio-methane production from abattoir wastewater (AW) was carried out using granular seed sludge as inoculum. Digestion was carried out at different inoculum to substrate ratios (ISR). The effect of co-digestion with food and vegetable wastewater (FVW) was also examined. Experiments were carried out in a 500 mL shake flask with a working volume of 250 mL, flushed with nitrogen and placed in a shaker, at room temperature and agitated at 100 rpm. For single substrate digestion, digesters contained 10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20% by volume of inoculum (granular seed sludge), while for co-digestion, digesters consisted of 100%, 80%, 60%, 50%, 40%, and 20% by volume of AW with the remainder made up by FVW. Results were fitted to a modified Gompertz equation to obtain kinetic parameters. The results showed that the highest specific methane yield of 252.3 mL/gCOD (chemical oxygen demand) from AW was obtained at an ISR of 0.2. The co-digestion setup with 80% AW gave the highest methane yield (665mL), and best kinetic parameters.
The results suggest that AW can be treated anaerobically, and become a potential source of methane. The kinetic parameters obtained using regression models can be useful in scaling up a bio-methane production process.
Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Abattoir Wastewater, Co-digestion, Inoculum to substrate ratio, Bio-methane
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF BIOAUGMENTATION ON THE EFFICIENCY OF ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE
M.C.V. Rocha, S.M. Braga and M.C.B. Braga*
*Parana Federal University, Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, Centro Politécnico – Jardim das Américas, CxP 19011 CEP 81531-980 Curitiba – PR – Brazil
Two bench scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBR) were operated to evaluate the reduction of organic matter and ammonium nitrogen concentrations in landfill leachate. The reactors were inoculated with sludge collected from the bottom of a facultative pond, located at Curitiba’s Sanitary Landfill, Parana, Brazil. The biomass of one of the reactors was bioaugmented by the addition of anaerobic microorganisms cultured in a medium containing 20 mL of raw landfill leachate and agar as a gelling agent. The microorganisms, isolated from the leachate were processed and visualized by scanning electron microscopy, using a novel preparation technique, which includes the growth of the microorganisms on the surface of a membrane of cellulose nitrate. Microscopic and molecular analysis of the cultures indicated that hydrogenotrophic microorganisms were the majority of the methanogen population, cultivated from samples of landfill leachate. The reactor with no augmentation presented removal efficiencies of COD, DOC and N-NH3 concentrations of 40%, 70% and 20%, respectively, whereas the reactor with augmentation presented efficiencies of 60%, 75% and 21%, respectively. Furthermore, it has been found out that the structure of the granules produced in the reactor with bioaugmented biomass was more uniform, even after two months from the addition of the microbial inoculum. The production of higher extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) may explain the structural stability of the granules in the system which received bioaugmentation, however, further research should be carried out to confirm these results.
Keywords: anaerobic microbiota, augmented biomass, granulation, microbial inoculum, antibiotic resistance, polymerase chain reaction
PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL AND FIRE PROPERTIES OF
THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES PRODUCED FROM RECYCLED PLASTIC MATRICES AND FILLED WITH LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES: A REVIEW
Bernardo Zandomenico Dias1, João Luiz Calmon2, Cristina Engel de Alvarez3
1Departamento de Arquitetura – Faculdades Multivix – Unidade São Mateus – 29938-015, São Mateus,
Espírito Santo, Brazil
2Departamento de Engenharia Civil – CT I/UFES – 29075-910, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil
³Laboratório de Planejamento e Projetos – LPP – CEMUNI I/UFES – 29075-910, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil”
Recycled plastic matrices and lignocellulosic residues are currently used to produce thermoplastic composites on a commercial scale. Nevertheless, some of the effects of these residues are unknown or not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using recycled plastic matrices and incorporating lignocellulosic residues into thermoplastic composites on their mechanical properties, water absorption, discolouration, oxidation and flammability. The method used consisted of a review of scientific papers, prioritising studies published after the year 2000. Papers were grouped by the type of composite analysed (produced from recycled plastic matrices and filled with lignocellulosic residues) as well as the properties studied. The analysed studies indicate that plastic waste is a promising source of raw material for thermoplastic composite production as it imparts with respect to several properties (such as flexural and tensile strength and stability against discoloration) the same performance achieved by virgin plastic-based composites. On the other hand, increasing the composites’ lignocellulosic filler content tends to improve their stability against oxidation, for example, but appears to decrease their time to ignition, which in turn is of major interest because such materials are currently used as building components.
Keywords: Polymer composites, wood-plastic composites, waste, recycling, plant fillers, durability
RECYCLING ALTERNATIVES TO TREATING PLASTIC WASTE, ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Sandra Liliana Palacio Vélez*, Alejandro Ramírez Vélez**
*Department of Organizations and Management, School of Management, Universidad EAFIT,
Cra 49 No 7 sur 50, Medellín, Colombia
**Bachelor in Business Management, Universidad EAFIT, Carrera 49 N° 7 Sur-50, Medellin – Colombia
Plastic waste is a problem not only for the environment, but also for the municipal solid waste management. In order to get new raw materials, further natural resources are being exploited. Moreover, plastic refuse that could be reintroduced into the production process is wasted. One important strategy to treat this waste is recycling. The importance lies in the fact that the plastic recycling process reduces the amount of waste going to landfills, and also because it permits a reduction in the consumption of virgin material and resources used to produce original polymers. Recycled plastic could be used as an input in the cycle production of new products, which is the case for concrete, car industry and textiles. Therefore, recycling could be considered an ecofriendly method for the treatment of plastic waste and a good opportunity for reducing the environmental impact, considering that the energy demands of recycling and reusing plastics are much lower than the energy inputs required to deal with virgin materials. This paper carries out a review of the relevant scientific research in the field of plastic recycling in order to make an overview of this practice and its impact on the environment.
Keywords: Solid plastic waste; Plastic recycling; Municipal solid waste; Primary recycling; Emissions; Environmental impacts
MICROWAVE ACTIVATION OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF) SLAG FOR STRENGTHENING CALCIUM EXTRACTION WITH AMMONIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION
Zhibo Tong, Guojun Ma*, Xiang Zhang
Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education
Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China 430081
Tel: +86 15827176543, Fax: +86 27 68862529
Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steelmaking slag is a bulk solid waste in the mini mill, which is potentially harmful to the environment. In this study, the characterizations of EAF slag were studied, such as chemical composition, particle size distribution, crystalline phases and thermal behavior. Calcium extraction from the EAF slag by ammonium chloride with the conventional extraction process and the microwave activation process were also investigated. The results show that the EAF slag has a good carbon sequestration capacity (~0.30kg CO2/kg slag) based on the theoretical calculation. The decomposition of calcium carbonate occurs at 500~800℃ with an endothermic peak. The leaching experiment indicates that the leaching ratio of Ca2+ with microwave activation can reach up to 45%, and it is slightly higher than that of conventional extraction. The time of microwave pretreatment and the equipment of microwave pretreatment are insignificant in increasing the leaching ratio of calcium under current experiment conditions for no obvious change of slag properties under heating temperature by microwave. The aluminum and iron can inhibit further calcium leaching due to its hydrolysis precipitation product formed on the surface of slag particles.
Keywords: Microwave activation; EAF slag; Recovery; Leaching; Ammonium chloride
PRINTED ELECTRONICS: A LANDFILL SIMULATION STUDY TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
James Atkinson, Dr. Thomas Joyce, Dr. Margaret Joyce
Dept. of Chemical and Paper Engineering, Western Michigan University
First Analytical Labs
A landfill simulation study was conducted using EPA methods 1311 and SW 846 in combination to assess the potential environmental impacts that could occur by the landfilling of printed electronics containing silver flake, silver nanoparticle, and nickel conductive inks. It appears that the amounts of inks used to print electronics might pose a threat to the environment even at low weight concentrations. First analytical Labs provided ICP-MS analysis for this research. It was found that the nickel ink used could have a potential environmental impact if landfilled in large quantities. The silver flake and nanoparticle inks did not cross the concentration threshold named in EPA method 1311-Toxicology Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). However, due to the low weight ratio in this experiment, it is believed that more research should be conducted to fully evaluate these inks.
Keywords: EPA method 1311, EPA method SW 846, Printed Electronics, Conductive ink, nanoparticle, environmental impacts
TOWARD A ZERO WASTE VISION: CONVERTING POULTRY WASTE INTO ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE FERTILIZER FOR PROFITABLE GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.)
PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA
F.B. Ibrahim1, U. Ibrahim2*, S.O. Sanusi3, and A. Namakka2
1Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria
2Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
3Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Federal University, Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria
The reuse of solid wastes such as agricultural waste has been the focus of most researches in recent times. Poultry waste can be reused as manure for crop production, instead of being dumped on the farm, causing environmental pollution. Poor soil fertility, availability and affordability of inorganic fertilizer have been identified as major constraints to groundnut production, which plays an important role in the diets of rural populations in developing countries. This work was therefore undertaken to determine the best poultry manure rates in three groundnut varieties under irrigation. To achieve this objective, field trial was conducted at the Irrigation Research Station of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University Kadawa located in the Sudan savanna ecological zone of Nigeria, during the 2012 dry season. The treatments consisted of six levels of poultry manure and three varieties of groundnut. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. The results from the study revealed that application of 1.5 tonnes ha-1 of poultry manure gave the highest pod yield, highest profit, highest ash and oil content and lowest fiber content. This study has established that poultry waste can be reused as fertilizer for groundnut production. Therefore, the use of 1.5 tonnes ha-1 poultry manure can be use to replace chemical fertilizer in groundnut production and each of the varieties can be selected for desired nutrient.
Keywords: Poultry manure, sustainable, profitable, groundnut and irrigation
EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF A RADICAL NEW LOCAL AUTHORITY PARTNERSHIP FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NORTHAMPTONSHIRE, ENGLAND – THE PES PROJECT 2011 – 2014
Charles Warner and Nicholas Head
University of Northampton, School of Science and Technology
Environmental and Material Sciences, Avenue Campus, St George’s Avenue
Northampton, NN2 6JD, United Kingdom
Phone: (+44)7914 844852
The formation of partnerships within Local Authorities (LA) in England came as a direct result of needing to reduce the cost of Environmental Service (ES) delivery, which includes waste management, and enhance recycling rates. These had slowed to 48% for Daventry District Council (DDC) and 38% for Northampton Borough Council (NBC) by Baseline (BL) year 2010/11 and was less than required. The Local Authority Partnership Unit (LAPU) created between DDC and NBC, under the Procurement of Environmental Services (PES) Project, is highly original, as ES were delivered through the procurement of an External Contractor (EC), selected through competitive Tender. EC service delivery performance was measured by outcome against pre-set targets, rather than a process based system. An operating model was developed by the LAPU to manage a procured EC called the ‘Monopoly Model’ (MM). The partnership began in June 2011. By 2013/14 recycling rates had risen to 49% for DDC and 42% for NBC and cost savings of £834k for DDC and £1,326k for NBC for that year. It is believed to be the first partnership of its kind in England for the delivery of ES by EC. This paper evaluates the first three years of EC performance and the key issues that arose through ES delivery by EC in a LAPU setting.
Keywords: Local Authority Partnership, Environmental Services, Recycling, Waste Management, Local Authority Procurement
USE OF DEAD BIOMASS OF ASPERGILLUS SPP. IN BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
A.B. Gunjala, B.P. Kapadnisa,*, N.J. Pawarb
aDepartment of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune-411007
bDepartment of Geology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune-411007
Tel: 020-25690643; Fax: 020-25690643
Heavy metal pollution of soil, water and air is one of the major issues many countries are facing. The fungi were isolated from the compost and compost yard soil and identified as Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigates. The dead biomass was used to study the sequestration of heavy metals from aqueous solution. Using dead biomass, the sequestration of Zn was more by A. fumigatus which was 89.08 mg g-1, Cd and Pb by A. oryzae which was 86.25 and 93.39 mg g-1 respectively from the mixed metal solutions. Ni sequestration was ineffective from the mixed metal solution. Sequestration of Zn, Cd, Pb and Ni was more by A. fumigatus which was 19.32, 11.15, 18.88 and 18.33 mg g-1 respectively from individual metal solutions. The sequestration of heavy metals from mixed and individual metal solutions using mixed biomass was less. A technology can be developed for the removal of Zn by A. fumigatus, Cd and Pb by A. oryzae from mixed metal solutions and Ni by A. fumigatus from individual metal solutions. This will prove important application in the bioremediation processes for the control of heavy metal pollution and will also be of high industrial relevance for the environmental protection.
Keywords: Heavy metal, compost, biosorption, biological, bioremediation
Issue 1, February 2017
RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SINGLE AND MULTIPLE LOW-CAPACITY WELLS FOR CONTAINING AND REMOVING CONTAMINANT PLUMES IN GROUNDWATER
Paul F. Hudak
Department of Geography and Environmental Science Program
University of North Texas
1155 Union Circle #305279
Denton, Texas 76203-5017
This modeling investigation compared the performance of single and multiple low-capacity extraction wells for containing and removing contaminant plumes in groundwater. Two cases were studied: one involving a relatively narrow (Case 1), and the other a relatively wide (Case 2), contaminant plume. Each case involved two alternative extraction scenarios: (a) one well, located 10 m directly downgradient of a contaminant plume; and (b) three wells, spaced 5 m apart, along a transect located 10 m downgradient of the contaminant plume. For each scenario, the model identified the minimum pumping rate necessary to prevent the contaminant plume from moving offsite, the amount of time required to remove the plume, and the volume of groundwater extracted from the aquifer to remove the plume. In each case, the total pumping rate required for multiple wells exceeded that of the single well, although the difference was less for the wider plume. Multiple-well alternatives removed 34% and 12% more water than single-well alternatives in Cases 1 and 2, respectively. Results suggest that for relatively narrow contaminant plumes, single extraction wells may be a better alternative, because they are less costly, require a lower pumping rate, and remove less groundwater, while containing and removing the plume.
Keywords: Contamination; groundwater; low-capacity well
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTROLYTIC PROCESS FOR SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL LEACHATES FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE
M.K.C. Sridhar, T.B. Hammed* and H.I. Oyelami
Department of Environmental Health Sciences,
Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Postal Address: PO Box 20593 UI HO, Ibadan, Nigeria
In an experimental study design with laboratory analysis, printed circuit boards (5 kg) of obsolete television were ground and sieved to obtain 2 mm particle size. Chemical leaching of copper using different concentrations of nitric acid (1 mol, 3 mol, 5 mol and 7 mol) was carried out at varying time intervals (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h). Leachate obtained was subjected to electrolysis to recover copper using a prototype electrolytic cell designed and fabricated locally. Bioleaching was carried out through composting process for four weeks using market wastes and cow dung under mesophilic conditions. Chemical leaching yielded higher copper (236 187.6 ± 0.4 mg·kg-1) than that leached biologically (74.4 ± 0.1 mg·kg-1). Electrolytic extraction showed that the mean weight of copper deposited at 1 Mol acid extraction (683.3 ± 2.6 mg) was significantly higher than that deposited at 3 mol concentration of electrolyte (366.7 ± 2.6 mg). Also, copper extracted electrolytically from chemical leachate (366.7 ± 2.6 mg) was higher than that extracted from bioleachate (36.8 ± 1.8 mg) at 3 mol of electrolyte. Bioleaching is a very slow process and the yield depends on method of leaching, current, voltage, electrolyte concentration, time and electrode types. These factors play an important role in electrolytic recovery of copper from e- wastes.
Keywords: E-waste, Electrolytic cells, Heavy metals, Printed circuit board, Bio-leachate, Chemical leaching
EGG SHELL ASH AS AUXILIARY ADDENDUM TO LIME STABILIZATION OF AN EXPANSIVE SOIL
Jijo James1*, Dr. P. Kasinatha Pandian2 and A. Snowline Switzer3
1Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering, Tagore Engineering College, Chennai – 127, India
2Principal and Professor in Civil Engineering, Karpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering and Technology, Chinnakolambakkam, Padalam, Kanchipuram 603308, India
3Undergraduate Student in Civil Engineering, Tagore Engineering College, Chennai – 127, India
The study involved the utilization of egg shell ash (ESA) as an auxiliary addendum to lime in stabilization of an expansive soil with the objective of evaluating its potential in augmenting the performance of lime. Locally available soil was excavated and transported to the lab where it was characterized and found to be high plastic clay of expansive nature. The minimum lime required for modification of this soil was determined using the Eades and Grim pH test and was found to be 4%. ESA was obtained by controlled combustion of egg shell powder in a muffle furnace at a temperature of 500oC for three hours. This ash was used as additive to 4% lime in three doses of 0.5%, 1% and 2%. The soil to be stabilized was mixed with 4% lime which formed the control specimen along with other combinations of lime and ESA and were moulded into cylindrical samples for determination of their uniaxial compressive strength. The samples were cured for periods of 7 and 28 days, followed by strength, plasticity and mineralogy tests. The results of the tests indicated that the addition of ESA to lime stabilization resulted in enhanced early as well as delayed strength and reduced plasticity. The strength of the lime stabilized soil increased from 171.87 kPa to 213.86 kPa for 2% addition of ESA at 28 days of curing. This translated to a strength gain of 24.43%. The plasticity of the lime stabilized soil reduced from 21.46% to 13.93% for 2% ESA amendment. Mineralogical analysis revealed the formation of calcium silicate and calcium aluminate hydrate minerals.
Keywords: Expansive soil, Lime stabilization, Initial consumption of lime, Egg shell ash, Uniaxial Strength, Plasticity
EFFECT OF BOTTOM ASH FINENESS ON PROPERTIES OF RED MUD GEOPOLYMER
K. Mandal1*, O. P. Sinha2
1Research Scholar, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, IIT (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Associate Professor, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, IIT (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Red mud from primary aluminium extraction plants creates environmental pollution due to improper method adaptation in larger scale utilization. The aim of the present investigation was to utilize these wastes for making geopolymer sample with the help of bottom ash to replace sand and also to examine the strength development with the addition of gypsum. Bricks were made with different finenesses of bottom ash and cured in water. Variation in strength, water absorption, and bulk density was determined by variation of red mud-bottom ash ratio, fineness of bottom ash and curing time. Results showed increased strength properties with increasing bottom ash, curing time and fineness up to 30% bottom ash. More red mud content decreased the available silica and alumina content, needed for the polymerization reaction, resulting in a reduction in bricks’ strength. The maximum compressive strength 7.56MPa was achieved at 28 days of curing at red mud-bottom ash ratio of 55:30 for fine bottom ash bricks. Obtained results were correlated with the results of previous work and it was concluded that red mud could be polymerized to quite a larger amount with the addition of bottom ash, gypsum for getting comparable properties with those of the commercial materials.
Keywords: Red mud, Bottom ash, Unfired brick, Geopolymeriztion, Waste, Strength development
USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TO COMPARE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF DIFFERENT WASTE TO ENERGY OPTIONS FOR SAO PAULO’S MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Fabio Rubens Soares,ab Gilberto Martinsa
a Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciências Sociais Aplicadas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia, 166 – Bairro Bangu. CEP 09.210-170. Santo André, SP. Brasil.
b Grupo de Pesquisa em Sustentabilidade – Centro Universitário Senac. São Paulo, Brasil
Tel.: (11) 5682-7599 or (11) 99948-9832
While Brazilian municipal solid waste (MSW) is most often collected and disposed of at “controlled” dumps and landfills, a large amount of refuse still ends up at irregular dumping sites. Unfortunately, there are few cases where waste is processed in a manner that provides additional benefits to local communities, for example, recovering energy from waste. The most common form of energy recovery practiced worldwide is converting it to electricity. In order to meet current energy needs and reduce fossil fuel emissions, this approach is a crucial component of any regional energy strategy and therefore should be considered wherever applicable. The present study quantified the feasibility of implementing alternative and complementary technologies for treatment and final disposal of the MSW of São Paulo to generate electricity with consideration of potential environmental impacts using life cycle assessment (LCA). The technologies considered were (i) disposal at landfill with biogas recovery, (ii) mechanical and biological treatment and (iii) incineration. The program SimaPro 7.3.3 was used to analyse the life cycle impact (LCI) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA).
The scope of the study, including the border and the detailing, was defined based on the technological treatment and disposal routes for MSW.. Results showed that, among the alternatives considered in this study, the electricity generated from the combined processes of a mechanical and biological treatment system and incineration is the most attractive option in terms of minimizing the environmental impacts. Electricity generation from incineration process proved to be attractive not only in terms of environmental impacts, but also in terms of energy efficiency, yielding more energy than simply collecting biogas from landfill. Results were classified in terms of potential long-term impacts, i.e., considering the potential environmental impacts over a period of 100 years. When considering long-term impacts, the greatest areas of concern were regarding carcinogenic substances, non-carcinogenic substances, ecotoxicity, and eutrophication.
As a general conclusion, this study identifies current options and opportunities for Brazil, for the implementation of projects related to energy conversion from MSW, with a focus on the incineration process, with the caveat that there are still socio-political-economic barriers to the latter process, despite its environmental benefits and energy efficiency.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste; energy; biogas; incineration; life cycle assessment
MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS APPLIED IN THE SELECTION OF SUITABLE AREAS FOR DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE IN ZONA DA MATA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL
Thaís de C. Felicoria, Eduardo A.G. Marquesb
aProfessor, Instituto Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Minas Gerais, 5189 – Bairro Ouro Verde, Governador Valadares, 35057760, MG, Brazil.
bProfessor, Civil Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. PH Rolfs, s/n – Campus Universitário, Viçosa, 36570000, MG, Brazil
Inappropriate waste disposal is prevalent in 60% of Brazilian cities and, in most cases, selection of disposal sites does not follow legal guidelines. In the Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil, this process is more problematic since physical characteristics results in large Permanent Protection Areas (PPAs). For this, Minas Gerais Environmental Foundation subdivided the state into Optimum Territorial Arrangements (OTAs), to be used in consortium waste management. In this context, this study aims to determine suitable areas for waste treatment in Zona da Mata region for three different analyses: legal restrictions and using OTAs as planning units; proposals for new restrictions; and cities as planning units. The first analysis resulted in reduced number of suitable sites. The second analysis resulted in higher number of sites, and the third resulted in a satisfactory number. Therefore, the applicability of OTAs in consortium waste management should be considered as unsuitable.
Keywords: Solid waste disposal; multicriteria analysis; sanitary landfill; site selection
LEACHING OF SULFUR AND HEAVY METALS FROM ASPHALT CONCRETE AS A RESULT OF MOISTURE CONDITIONING
Mekdim T. Weldegiorgisa a, Rafiqul A. Tarefder b
a Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico, MSC01-1070
Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA
Phone: 505-277-2722, Fax: 505-277-1988
b Associate Professor and Regents’ Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico, MSC01-1070, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA
Currently there are no studies evaluating leaching of asphalt elements resulting from a combined scouring and pressure cycle exposure. Hetero-elements such as sulfur and vanadium dictate the polarity and aging in asphalt. Therefore, leaching of these elements directly impacts the integrity of asphalt concrete. Scouring in the pavement occurs due to the pushing and pulling of water created as vehicle tires pass over the pavement and high pore pressure in asphalt concrete results in the rupture of thin asphalt film that allows water to infiltrate to the aggregate surface resulting in stripping. Moisture Induced Sensitivity Tester (MIST) equipment simulates the scouring and pore pressure buildup by repeatedly pushing and pulling water into and out of the pores of the asphalt concrete sample. In this study, leaching of asphalt binder elements resulting from MIST moisture conditioning of asphalt concrete samples is investigated using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Ion Chromatography (IC) tests. The results showed an increase in the concentration of vanadium, sulfur and sulfate in water used for conditioning of asphalt samples. ICP-MS tests show an average of 700% and 90% increase in the concentration of vanadium in the DI and normal tap water respectively. ICP-OES tests reveal on the average 11% and 1600% increase in the concentration of sulfur in normal tap and DI water respectively. The IC test results also show an average increase of 380% in the concentration of sulfate.
Keywords: Moisture; Damage; Asphalts; Leaching; Asphalt pavements; Chemical tests
CONVERSION OF WASTE PAPER-BASED BAIT FORMULATION FOR BIOGENIC PRODUCTION BY TERMITES IN TROPICAL LAND
Musrizal Muin* and Astuti Arif
Forestry Faculty of Hasanuddin University, Makassar
Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km-10 Makassar 90245
Termites are well-known decomposers in tropical forest ecosystems. This study explores their usefulness in bioconversion of waste papers-based food sources. The aim was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of biogenic products converted by termites from waste paper-based bait matrices in tropial forest land. The tested hypothesis was that the existing termites effectively convert the bait matrices into nutrient-rich organic materials, potential for the improvement of soil properties. For the purpose of the study, wastes of cardboard, office papers, and decayed pine wood were equally mixed based on their oven-dried weights. The mixture formulation enriched with nutrients was prepared in a closed design of PVC-pipe (with the target density of 0.5 g cm-3, moisture content of 50-70%). The physical and chemical properties of biogenic structure resulted by termites were determined at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The formulated mixture with the bait design successfully attracted termites Macrotermes sp., which utilized the mixture as a food source and converted it into valuable biogenic products, enhancing physical and chemical properties of soil.
Keywords: Bioconversion, biogenic products, Macrotermes sp., termite baits, waste papers