Issue 4, November 2018
REED-BASED BIOCHAR PRODUCTION IN A FLUIDIZED BED PYROLOYSIS REACTOR
Faisal A. Shahin, Bassim E. Abbassi*, Ramesh P. Rudra
School of Engineering, University of Guelph
50 Stone Road E, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1
Reed plants are abundantly available in most wetland areas around the world. Due to their high carbon content, reed plants have high potential as a suitable precursor for biochar production. In this investigation, phragmites australis reed plant was collected, prepared and used to produce biochar at different pyrolysis/carbonization temperatures (500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C) and times (15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min.). Pyrolysis was carried out under an inert atmosphere using a fluidized bed reactor, the minimum fluidization velocity was found to be 50 mL/min. The experimental system consists of a vertical electrical muffle furnace and a U-shape reactor made of a 316-grade stainless steel tube. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and time on both yield and quality of the product were studied. The quality of the reed derived biochar was measured in terms of iodine number which provides information on the adsorption characteristics of the biochar. Further characterization such as proximate and ultimate analysis as well as yield at different carbonization temperatures and times were investigated using a CHN microanalyzer and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The surface morphology and porosity of the produced biochar were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It has been shown that biochar yield decreased with increased temperature, indicating increased devolatilization of the raw feedstock. The results also showed that carbonization yield was nearly constant above 700 °C. Furthermore, no further carbonization occurred at times greater than 60 min. To determine the adsorption capacity of the carbonized material, biochar was tested using the iodine adsorption method. The highest adsorption capacity of 193.7 mg/g was obtained at 900 °C and 60 min.
Keywords: Phragmites australis; pyrolysis; biochar; carbonization; adsorption
SYNTHESIS OF A PASTE BACKFILL GEOPOLYMER USING PURE ACIDIC GOLD MINE TAILINGS
Thabo Falayi*, Freeman Ntuli, Felix Okonta
Department of Civil Engineering Science, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Johannesburg
P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park
South Africa, 2006
Gold mine tailings (GMT) were characterised and alkaline activated into geopolymers so as to reduce their pollution potential. The GMT was activated because they are aluminosilicate materials and as such they have the potential to be geopolymerised under alkaline conditions. The main parameters tested were the effect of type of alkali (NaOH and KOH), concentration of alkali, liquid to solid ratio, curing time and temperature. The optimum synthesis conditions were 10 M KOH, liquid solid ratio of 0.26, curing temperature and time of 90°C and 5 days respectively. The reduction in the intensity of XRD peaks coupled with the decrease in FTIR wavenumbers for the major peak may be used as a sign for geopolymerisation of GMT. This study provides an opportunity for the use of GMT as raw material for the production of paste although there is still need to allow the curing to take place at room temperature to reduce energy consumption associated with the geopolymerisation process.
Keywords: Geopolymer; Gold mine tailings; open porosity; alkalinity; Toxicity Leaching Characteristic Procedure; Durability.
PREDICTION THE BREAKTHROUGH CURVES OF LEAD IONS BIOSORPTION IN FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
Yousif M. Yousif*, Shahlaa E. Ebrahim*, Nadhem H. Hyder**
*Environmental Engineering Department, College of Engineering,
**College of Science, Department of Biotechnology
Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq
Tel. +96 47814994845
Adsorption potential of macrofungi spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to remove lead ions from aqueous solution was investigated using a fluidized-bed column. The effects of inlet Pb (II) concentration (25, 50 and 100 mg/L), feed flow rate (8.8, 10.4 and 12 L/hr) and bed weight (50, 100 and 150 gm) on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system were studied. Zeta potential measurements show that the negative charge of biomass (when pH= 4-5) became favorable to the attraction between active sites and positive lead ions charges. Back-propagation algorithms with multi-layer artificial neural networks (ANNs) trainings for predict the breakthrough curves of lead ions biosorption were used in this study. A number of subjects in relation to ANNs architecture such as the internal parameters and geometry effect on the performance of ANNs model were studied. The results showed the ANNs capability to predict the breakthrough curve with a good degree of accuracy (The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.958). Desorption and regeneration of lead metal by different desorbents from spent mushroom biomass was as the following: HCl > EDTA > HNO3 > NaOH > Distilled Water
Keywords: ANNs; Biosorption; Fluidized-bed; Lead ions; Spent mushroom; Zeta potential; Desorption and Regeneration
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPOSITION, CHARACTERIZATION AND RECYCLABLES POTENTIAL: A CASE STUDY EVALUATION IN MALAYSIA
Mohd Suffian Yusoffa, Mohamad Anuar Kamaruddinb*, Hamidi Abdul Aziza,
Mohd Nordin Adlana, Nastaein Qamaruz Zamana, Noor Zalina Mahmoodc
aSchool of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
b,*Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology,
Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800 Penang, Malaysia
cInstitute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti of Malaya 50603 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
Tel: +6046535203, Fax: +6046536375
Efficient and sound waste management in developing country like Malaysia requires reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. At present there is no data available on municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and composition retained at major districts in Kelantan. It has caused severe difficulty in decision making for comparability and applicability of the waste management options. Here, we reported a baseline data for MSW composition, characterization and recyclable potentials from three major dumping sites which are Beris Lalang, Bukit Akil and Renok in Kelantan, Malaysia. Manual sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: food/organics, paper, tetrapak, plastic film, plastic rigid, napkins, textiles, rubber, leather, garden, glass, metals, household hazardous waste and others. The daily average MSW for the present period was calculated at 0.90, 0.60 and 0.89 kg/cap/day respectively for three districts studied. A direct sampling of MSW as disposed at three dumping sites was conducted based on MS2505:2012 standard method to come out with appropriate MSW composition. The results of the analyzed component showed that organic fraction was dominant (28-44%), followed by paper (12.5-22%), tetrapak (11.5-12.5%), plastics film (3.4-8.49%) and plastic rigid (6.22-14.84%). The results suggested that there is great possibility for recyclable wastes diversion practice which should be able to recover more than 35% of total MSW generation. The figure implies that, more than 376 tonne/day of MSW generation could be diverted and has the potential for recycling, reprocessing and reduced.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste, Recyclables, Waste generation rate, Waste component, Waste sampling
ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT AND WASTE FOOTPRINT OF KOCHI CITY, INDIA–A COMBINED ANALYSIS
Athira Ravi*1, Subha Vishnudas2
1Research Scholar, Division of Civil Engineering,
2Associate Professor, Division of Civil Engineering,
School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology
Kochi is the second most important city next to Mumbai on the western coast of India. It is the commercial capital of the Kerala State and is a land having a wide variety of residential environments. Due to urbanization, rapid population growth, changing life styles, food habits, living standards and many other administrative and technical problems, the present pattern of the city can be classified as that of haphazard growth with typical problems of unplanned urban development especially in the case of solid waste management. Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) is a quantitative tool that represents the ecological load imposed on the earth by humans in spatial terms (ecological footprint). Waste footprint is a subset of ecological footprint, which quantifies the impact of waste generation by the humans. This paper analyses the ecological footprint and waste footprint of the residential areas of Kochi city.
Keywords: Urbanization, solid waste management, ecological footprint analysis, ecological footprint, waste footprint, Kochi city.
RECYCLING OF STONE CUTTING WASTE FOR HEAVY METALS REMOVAL
Kamel K. Al-Zboon
Associate Prof. Environmental Department, Al-Huson University College,
Al-Balqa Applied University
P.O. Box 50, Al-Huson-Irbid 21510, Jordan
Tel: +962-777-426557, Fax: +962-2-7010397
The aim of this paper is to study of possible utilization of stone cutting waste as slurry for the removal of Nickel from liquid solution. The Impact of the added waste on the solution pH, and Ni removal was investigated. Also, parameters that affect the removal efficiency such as: slurry dosage, contact time and temperature were considered. The results showed that the stone cutting slurry has successfully achieved a high removal efficiency of Ni up to 99%. The removal efficiency increased as the slurry dosage increase up to 315 ml and decrease with initial metal concentration increase. A contact time of 30 mints was sufficient to provide a removal efficiency of 93% while 180 mints contact time can raise the removal up to 99%. The impact of temperature on the removal efficiency was clearly significant, where the removal increased from 73 to 99% as the temperature increased from 30 to 50 °C. The obtained results buttressed the usefulness of using stone cutting slurry for heavy metal removal which reduce the impact of this waste on the environment, reduce the cost of disposal, and encourage the zero-waste strategy.
Keywords: Stone cutting waste, slurry, Ni, Coagulation, recycling
THE STUDY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GLASS FIBER AND FLY ASH COMPOSITE CEMENT SOIL
Qian Wei, He Wenxiu
Department of Water Conservancy
Liaoning Water Conservancy Vocational College
Shenyang 110122, PR China
Using the clay and cement widely distributed in Hetao irrigation district of Inner Mongolia, with industrial waste fly ash and glass fiber as the additive, using orthogonal test method, through triaxial test, this paper studies the influence factor and development law of glass fiber and fly ash composite cement soil. The test results show that: age and cement content have a greater influence on the on the strength, secondly it is the glass fiber, while fly ash has the minimal effect on strength. Within a certain range, the strength increases with the increase of cement content in the form of a linear growth approximately; along with the increase of dosage of fly ash and glass fiber, it shows first increasing and then decreasing trend. Using scanning electron microscope to explore the microstructure characteristics, the results show that the glass fiber and fly ash composite cement soil will produce a mass of needle-like and flake-like hydration products, these hydration products are wrapped surrounding the particle and glass fiber, and form a certain network structure and fill the internal space, also the hydration products wrapped on the surface of the glass fiber, which increases the cohesive force and friction force between glass fiber and soil particles, slows down the further extension of crack, is of great significance for engineering practical application.
Keywords: Glass fiber and fly ash composite cement soil, orthogonal test, triaxial test, microstructure
EVALUATION OF CALCIUM CARBIDE RESIDUE WASTE AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT IN CONCRETE
O.A. Mokuolu1*, T.B. Olaniyi2, S.O. Jacob-Oricha1
1Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering,
2Department of Civil Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
The effect of calcium carbide residue (CCR) waste in compressive strength and workability of concrete when used as a partial replacement of cement in concrete was investigated. Sieve analysis was carried out on fine and coarse aggregates to identify the zone and size of aggregate used in the study. Concrete mix design was carried out for concrete grade G20. A total number of 72 concrete cubes were cast in which 18 cubes each were tested at 7days, 14days, 21days and 28days. The cubes were cast using 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% replacement of cement with CCR waste and slump test was carried out to check the workability of each concrete mix. The results of workability test carried out showed that the values were within the tolerance interval of 10-50mm in mix design and from the compressive strength test carried out on the specimen at 28days of curing, 10% to 20% replacement of cement with CCR waste gives a satisfactory result. Linear regression for statistical inferences showed CCR replacement and age of curing were significant at p < 0.05. The potential of this product within the concept of waste to wealth should be further explored.
Keywords: Cement, Compressive strength, Workability, Waste, Concrete
ESTIMATION OF METHANE EMISSIONS
FROM WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA
R.M. Balogun-Adeleye*, E.O. Longe, K.O. Aiyesimoju
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Lagos
Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
Increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) and its management continues to be a major challenge for growing cities as landfills are the most common method of MSW disposal world over. Landfills are known to be one of the anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4) and this gas is an important contributor to global warming. Many literature reports have been carried out to quantify methane from landfills, but little information is available about the quantity of methane emitted from waste disposal sites (WDS) in Lagos, Nigeria. In this study, the LandGEM model parameters k and Lo were modified and used to estimate methane emissions from WDS in Lagos, Nigeria. The results showed that the k and Lo values for the WDS were 0.237 yr-1 and 75.85 m3/tonne and the maximum CH4 generation at the WDS are 29,709,414m3, 6,574,684 m3, 3,634,598 m3 for Olushosun, Abule Egba and Solous 1WDS. The default parameters in the model was also used to estimate the CH4 generation and this resulted in an overestimation of CH4 with about 42%, 37% and 40% in Olushosun, Abule Egba and Solous WDS during the period considered. It is recommended that LFG parameters should be developed for developing countries in order to avoid over/under estimation of methane generation from their waste disposal sites. Furthermore, modeling errors could result in the design of oversized landfill gas (LFG) management systems.
Keywords: Waste, methane emission, municipal solid waste, LandGEM, disposal
WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Wajeeha A. Qazi1*, Mohammed F.M. Abushammala1,
Mohammed-HashamAzam1, Mohammad K. Younes2
1Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East College,
Knowledge Oasis Muscat, PB No. 79, Al Rusayl, 124, Sultanate of Oman
2Department of Civil Engineering, Philadelphia University, P.O. Box 19392, Amman, Jordan
Rapid economic development and urbanization has caused rapid increase of waste generation worldwide. The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation is expected to double by 2025. This rapid increase needs to be tackled to reduce the generation rates along with the environmental impacts it imposes. Disposal of waste in landfills results in the generation of huge amounts of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), negative impacts on human health, air and water pollution. Solid waste generation increments, rising demand for energy and preservation of fossil fuels, caused an increase in the popularity of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) technologies as the solution for waste managing problems and energy demands. Waste-to-Energy technologies convert the waste into energy and minimize the amount of waste sent to landfills. The aim of this paper is to present the process and specific aspects of WTE technologies along with their advantages and disadvantages. It illustrates that the waste and process must be closely matched to achieve proper conversion of waste and better efficiency of a WTE technology. This study also highlighted some thermochemical WTE facilities which can recover both energy and materials from waste. The continuous developments being made in process efficiency and process control of WTE facilities are expected to enhance the commercial feasibility of these conversion processes in the near future.
Keywords: Waste-to-Energy; Waste technologies; Waste management; Feedstock; Biochemical technologies; Thermochemical technologies
Issue 3, August 2018
EFFECTIVENESS OF ADDING METALLIC FIBERS ON THE STABILIZATION / SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HYDROXIDE SLUDGE BY HYDRAULIC BINDER
1Laboratoire de Génie de Construction et d’Architecture
2Laboratoire de Technologie des Matériaux et de Génie des Procédés
Faculté de Technologie, Université de Bejaia (Algérie)
The stabilization of two inorganic wastes (hydroxide sludge and metal fibers) in mortars (cement-based CEM I, W / C = 0.5) was considered in the paper. The optimum fibers is 20% by mass for the maximum compressive and splitting tensile strength .The analysis by the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry leachate allowed monitoring the release of polluting species in different study environments. The results including physical, mechanical and leaching behavior under different environments (neutral, sulfated), have shown the effectiveness of the waste containment in cementitious matrices. The use of SEM-EDX and FT-IR is a considerable contribution to the confirmation of the results obtained by XRD.
Keywords: Mortar; hydroxide sludge; stabilization / solidification; leaching; Metal fibers
PREDICTING LEACHATE CONTAINING NICKEL AND CHROMIUM MIGRATION THROUGH SINGLE- AND DOUBLE-LINER SYSTEM LANDFILL
Mochamad Arief Budihardjo
Department of Environmental Engineering
The leachate produced in municipal solid waste landfills (MSWL) when mixed garbage decomposes may contain heavy metals, such as nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr), which are harmful to the environment. For this reason, it is necessary to provide landfills with liners that function as leachate barriers. In general, two liner systems are used in landfills: single and double liners. In order to calculate the capability of single and double liners to detain the migration of Ni and Cr, a description of Ni and Cr movement patterns in the liner of an MSWL is needed. Therefore, this research aimed to simulate the contaminant migration patterns of Ni and Cr. The initial concentrations of Ni and Cr above the liner layer were established as 4.5 mg/l and 7 mg/l, respectively. The study results indicate a significant decline in Ni and Cr concentrations after the contaminants pass through the semi-permeable layer of the liner. Meanwhile, other simulation results suggest that Ni and Cr concentrations in the natural soil increase slightly after a landfill has been operating for 15 years due to the accumulation of contaminants in the preceding years.
Keywords: Contaminant transport, nickel, chromium, single liner, double liner
AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MICRO-ENTERPRISES IN JORDAN
Engineering Faculty, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria
Hazardous wastes are potential sources of risks to both human health and environment. Jordan is not an exception. In reality, little information is available regarding generation, handling and disposal of these hazardous wastes in Jordan. There is a real need to explore the current practices towards hazardous waste in Jordan. This paper aims to explore various aspects related to hazardous waste generated by micro-enterprises, current practices of waste management, and barriers and motivators for adopting effective waste management procedures in Jordan. In order to achieve the aim; interview, questionnaire survey and site visits were employed to collect data in this study. The results revealed that the main four hazardous wastes generated were 61.7% used oil, 12.4% spent volume, 9.3% lead batteries and 8.6% antifreeze, while 4.4% and 3.6% were for total empty containers and hazardous wastes, respectively. Three greatest barriers facing by micro-enterprise have been identified in order to adopt effective waste management procedures which are i) lack of infrastructure, ii) lack of government support and iii) lack of enforcement measures and capabilities. Financial incentives was found to be the greatest motivator for micro-enterprise to implement effective waste management procedures.
Keywords: Hazardous wastes, Micro-Enterprises, Barriers, Motivator, Jordan
UTILIZATION OF WASTES FROM METAL PROCESSING PLANTS AS FINE AGGREGATES REPLACEMENT FOR HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE
Department of Mining Engineering, Federal University of Technology
P.M.B.704 Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
This work studied the use of metallurgical wastes as fine aggregate replacement for the production of high strength concrete (HSC). This will offer greater benefits in promoting material greenness and natural resource conservation. The wastes were graded to meet concrete application. 250 g, 500 g and 750 g of wastes aggregate were made to replace laterite in concrete mixes. The Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) revealed that the concrete mix containing varying grams of the wastes have higher strength values than laterite as aggregate. Therefore, steel slag (SS) and iron ore tailings (IOT) have good potential in the production of HSC. The UCS of the concrete block made with IOT increased with increasing proportion of IOT in the mixes giving 40.0, 42.5, and 44.5 MPa however SS strength drops sharply at 750 g replacement giving 44.5, 47 and 33.3 MPa respectively. In another test, the wastes were made to replace the fine aggregate by 50 % and 100 % by wt. The UCS after 21 days of curing was 43.5 and 47.5 MPa for IOT, while for SS are 40.8 and 30 MPa. UCS of mixture containing only laterite and gravel was 28.3 MPa. Optimal ratio of SS to fine aggregate is obtained at 1:5 while IOT ratio is 1:3.
Keywords: Iron ore tailings; steel slag; fine aggregate; high strength concrete, optimal ratio
WASTING INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES: A CASE STUDY WITH GARDEN HILL AND WASAGAMACK FIRST NATIONS IN NORTHERN MANITOBA, CANADA
Ahmed Oyegunle, Shirley Thompson1
Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba,
Tel. #: 204-474-7170
A case study of solid waste management in two fly-in Indigenous communities in Canada shows waste management poses high risk to human health and is contaminating land and water. All community members (n=27) who were interviewed in the two communities reported open dumping and burning their waste, including e-waste and healthcare waste. This burning of waste was typically adjacent to each home in the community due to the lack of any waste or recycling collection service or options for recycling or safe disposal. Without a sanitary landfill or recycling programs, non-biodegradable and toxic wastes in these communities contaminate the land and water. Stratified composite soil samples taken at the largest dumpsite in each community revealed that arsenic, lead, chromium, zinc and copper typically exceeded Canadian soil environmental guidelines, including industrial guidelines. Many Indigenous people spoke of the land as sacred and saw themselves as stewards of their territorial land but felt the toxicity of modern waste and the lack of funding or services to deal with it compromised their stewardship role. Waste management of non-biodegradable products, other than burning, was considered to be beyond their control with the few resources available to them.
Keywords: Solid waste management, hazardous waste, contaminants, Indigenous, First Nation, northern Manitoba
BIOGAS GENERATION POTENTIAL OF ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES AND LIVESTOCK MANURES
Fabíole Jordana Los Barbosa
Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Centro-oeste (UNICENTRO), Irati, Brazil
Alexandre Rodrigues Cabral
Dept. Civil and Building Engineering, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada
Marlon André Capanema
Dept. of Sanitation and Environmental Engineering, Instituto Federal de Goiás (IFG), Goiânia, Brazil
Waldir Nagel Schirmer*
Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Centro-oeste (UNICENTRO), Irati, Brazil
Phone: 55 (42) 34213216; firstname.lastname@example.org
This study evaluated the potential of biogas generation of the fresh organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) inoculated with swine manure and cattle manure, based on the volatile solids content obtained from biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Several physico-chemical parameters (e.g. volatile solids, pH and chemical oxygen demand) were assessed in the laboratory before and after 50 days of incubation of several samples of OFMSW, swine manure and cattle manure, and mixtures thereof. During incubation, reductions in percentage of volatile solids were relatively low (from 5.5% to 11.4%), indicating the existence of substrates that can degrade after the 50-day digestion period. Among the physico-chemical parameters evaluated, pH was a limiting parameter for anaerobic digestion of OFMSW and manures. The mixture showing the best performance in terms of volume of biogas generated contained 1 gvs OFMSW: 1 gvs swine manure, which led to the production of 60.4 mL.gVS-1 or 22 mL.gOFMSW-1 biogas. The values of CH4 concentration increased throughout the incubation period, and the CH4 concentration value peaked at 80% for the mixture 1 gvs OFMSW:1 gvs swine manure. The results obtained indicate the OFMSW and manures can be effectively used for power generation.
Keywords: Biochemical methane potential (BMP); Co-digestion; Landfill; Methane production; Renewable energy
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AS A DIAGNOSTIC AND PLANNING TOOL FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT—A CASE STUDY IN A BRAZILIAN MUNICIPALITY
Michel Xocaira Paes1, Sandro Donnini Mancini1*, Gerson Araújo de Medeiros1,
Ana Paula Bortoleto2, Luiz Alexandre Kulay3
1Institute of Science and Technology, São Paulo State University, Sorocaba, Brazil
2School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
3Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil
Tel. +55 15 3238 3423, Mobile: +55 15 99797-0905 email@example.com
This paper discusses an evaluation of the environmental impacts of a Municipal Solid Waste Management System using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), with a view to the proposal of improvement actions, the support of decision-making processes, and the establishment of public policies. This study was developed based on an analysis of the solid waste management system of the city of Sorocaba, Brazil (600,000 inhabitants). The LCA was performed using the CML baseline 2000 method of impact assessment. The system consists primarily of the ordinary collection and disposal in a landfill of 488 tons/day of solid wastes containing more than 40% of organic matter and a selective collection which diverts only 17 tons/day of the wastes from landfilling. It was found that emissions of methane in the landfill are responsible for 62% of all the impacts, followed by the transport of ordinary wastes (34.2%). Actions such as increased recycling and the development of composting, anaerobic digestion and incineration of waste would significantly reduce the amount of landfill waste, and hence, the impacts of landfilling. The burning of methane and the use of biofuels by the fleet should be immediately implemented to reduce the impacts provided by this waste management system.
Keywords: Life cycle assessment (LCA); Environmental impacts; Waste management; Municipal solid waste; Public policy
CHEMICAL, MINERAL AND MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID WASTES FOR USE AS AUXILIARY ADDITIVES IN SOIL STABILIZATION
Jijo James1, P. Kasinatha Pandian2
1Associate Professor in Civil Engineering, SSN College of Engineering,
Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Kalavakkam – 603110, India
2Principal and Professor in Civil Engineering, Karpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering and Technology, Chinna Kolambakkam, Padalam – 603308, India
The study involved the characterization of five solid wastes viz. Phosphogypsum (PG), Ceramic Dust (CD), Press Mud (PM), Bagasse Ash (BA) and Coconut Shell Powder (CSP) in order to understand their suitability as additives to primary binders in soil stabilization. The materials were collected from their sources and were prepared in the laboratory for characterization. They were subjected to various tests including loss on ignition, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy tests. The results of the characterization were analysed using ASTM standard for natural pozzolans as well as literary evidence. Based on the investigation, it was found that only ceramic dust was able to achieve the minimum requirements for natural pozzolan in accordance with ASTM code C618. However, based on literary evidence it was found that CD, BA and PG were also capable of providing pozzolanic benefits.
Keywords: Characterization, Mineralogy, Microstructure, Solid Wastes, Additive, Stabilization
PRESSMUD, A LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE AS POTENTIAL CARRIER FOR IN-SITU PRODUCTION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCES BY BACILLUS CIRCULANS
B. Gunjala*, B. P. Kapadnisa, N. J. Pawarb
aDepartment of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University,
Ganeshkhind Road, Pune-411007, India
bDepartment of Geology, Savitribai Phule Pune University,
Ganeshkhind Road, Pune-411007, India
Different lignocellulosic wastes are generated in agroindustries, viz., peanut shells in peanut industries; corn cob in maize industries; paddy husk in rice milling industries; pressmud in sugar industries and sawdust in sawmills. These lignocellulosic wastes are either disposed off in the landfills or burnt. There is increasing trend towards conversion of lignocellulosic wastes into value-added products. Such carriers are renewable and facilitate in-vitro production of plant growth promoting substances. The solid state fermentation was carried out in pressmud based carrier using Bacillus circulans. The leachate from solid state fermentation was analyzed for plant growth promoting traits, antifungal activity and the effect of fermented broth grown on pressmud was studied on plant growth. The gibberellins production was high on 14th day in the pressmud fermented broth which was 11.60 µg ml-1. The phosphate solubilization and phytase production was more on 14th day with relative activity 2.60 and 4.14 respectively. The NH4+ production was more on 3rd day which was 67.20 ppm. The leachate from solid state fermentation using pressmud inoculated with Bacillus circulans did not show any antifungal activity against the fungal phytopathogens. Significant increase was found in the root length of jowar and bajra plants. The study showed that production of plant growth promoting substances in the solid state fermentation is possible.
Keywords: Agroindustry by-product; Value addition; Solid state fermentation; Renewable; Leachate; Eco-friendly
BENEFICIAL UTILIZATION OF CHINESE DRY FGD MATERIALS FOR STABILIZATION OF WEAK SOILS
Tarunjit S. Butalia1, Maria T. Amaya1, Mehedy Amin1, Chin-Min Cheng1, Maoyuan Lu2, Yongrui Chen2, Muh-Cheng Milton Wu2, William Wolfe1
1The Ohio State University, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering,
2070 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2Lonjing Environmental Technology Co. Ltd, Longking Square,
No. 399 Lihou Road, Xiamen, Fujian, 361009, China
The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of utilizing three types of dry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) materials generated in China for stabilizing weak soils. An international research effort was undertaken by The Ohio State University (United States) in collaboration with Lonjing Environmental Technology (China).
These FGD materials, in combination with lime, were mixed with soil to determine the type and optimal amounts necessary to stabilize weak soils as a function of curing time using unconfined compressive strength and 1D swell tests.
The results show that a mixture of soil, 20% FGD material, and 5% quick lime displays a significant increase in strength over an extended period resulting from the formation of ettringite, which is caused by the reactivity of the FGD material within the mixture and may be catalyzed by the addition of lime, which is most suitable for stabilization. Hydration of quick lime present within the mixture can result in very high immediate swelling which can be avoided by allowing the mixture to mellow for 24 hours before compaction. Therefore, dry FGD materials generated in China can be used in combination with lime to stabilize weak soils to gain sufficient strength with minimal swell potential.
Keywords: Coal combustion byproduct; flue-gas desulfurization material; soil stabilization
Issue 2, May 2018
SUPPRESSION OF HETERODERA SACCHARI IN RICE WITH AGRICULTURAL WASTE-SILVER NANO PARTICLES
O. A. Fabiyi1, G. A. Olatunji2, A. O. Saadu1
1Department of Crop Protection, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
2Department of Industrial Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Pests bring about significant decrease in rice production which translates to huge financial loss. Plant parasitic nematodes are economically important pests of rice. Three different agro-silver nano particles were synthesized using conventional methods with agricultural wastes: corncobs, milled maize residue also referred to as ogi residue and rice husk. The supernatant liquid was decanted and the residue was air dried at room temperature. This was incorporated into the soil of rice (NERICA 1 variety) plants inoculated with cyst nematodes Heterodera sacchari. The application of silver nano particles at 75g and 50g increased the vegetative growth and robustness of rice plants with comparatively higher yield than the yield obtained from untreated plants as demonstrated in pot experiments. Thus agro-wastes silver nano particle (AgNP) can be employed in the control of nematode pests of rice. The adoption of the agro-based nano particle by rural farmers is technically feasible.
Keywords: Cyst nematodes, pollution, bio-pesticide, nematicides, nano-particles
DESORPTION BEHAVIOUR OF PB AND ZN FROM
STABILIZED ISF SLAG IN BITUMINOUS MIXES
Dr. S. B. Patil1, Dr. A. K. Vyas2, Dr. A. B. Gupta2, Dr. R. K. Vyas3,
Rajesh Bansal4, Rashmi S. Patil5
1,2Department of Civil Engineering
3Department of Chemical Engineering
1Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere – 402 103, INDIA
2,3Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur – 302 017, INDIA
4Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Chanderiya, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, INDIA
5M. Tech Student, PDA College of Engineering Gulbarga, INDIA
Imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slag from Zinc industries is a waste byproduct produced in a large quantity in pyrometallurgical process. This slag is considered hazardous. An attempt has been made to replace fine aggregate by ISF slag in bituminous mixes. Solidification and Stabilization (S/S) technique was adopted in the present study to immobilize metals, e.g. Pb and Zn with fine aggregate in Bituminous Concrete (BC) and Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) mixes. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) tests indicate that solidified mixes are environmentally acceptable. Linear, Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin Isotherms have been drawn for release of Pb and Zn from BC and DBM mixes using buffer solution in TCLP test. Tempkin and Freundlich isotherms were found to be the best-fit Isotherm for release of Pb and Zn, respectively.
Keywords: Desorption, Slag, Bituminous mixes, Isotherm, TCLP, Hazardous waste
LFG EMISSION AND CH4 OXIDATION MEASUREMENTS IN A TROPICAL CLIMATE: SPATIAL AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS
Mohammed F. M. Abushammala1*, Mohammad K. Younes2
1Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East College, Knowledge Oasis Muscat, P.B. No 79, Al Rusayl, Postal Code: 124, Sultanate of Oman
2Department of Civil Engineering, Philadelphia University, P.O. Box 19392, Amman, Jordan
Landfill gas (LFG) emissions and methane (CH4) oxidation were investigated in a landfill located in tropical climate in Malaysia to measure spatial and seasonal variations in CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the capacity of CH4 oxidation in the landfill cover soil, seasonal variation of CH4 oxidation, and the impact of CH4 oxidation on composition of LFG emissions. The measurements were conducted within eight months during the rainy and dry seasons. CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured using a fabricated static flux chamber. The averages of CH4 and CO2 emissions were determined using the geospatial average (g/m2/d) with lesser error. The combination of the gas concentrations (CH4 and CO2) below the cover soil and the surface CH4 and CO2 fluxes at four stations were utilized to determine the average CH4 oxidation capacity (%). The results of the study showed that CH4 and CO2 emissions were not spatially uniform and ranged from 0 to 1,602 g/m2/d and 5 to 2,753 gm-2 d-1 in both seasons. In addition, higher CH4 and CO2 emissions and lower CH4 oxidation capacity were observed in the rainy season in contrast to the dry season.
Keywords: CH4 oxidation, landfill cover soils, LFG emission, seasonal variation, spatial variation, methane oxidation
HYDROMETALLURGICAL REMOVAL OF COBALT, MOLYBDENUM, AND NICKEL FROM SOLID WASTE SPENT HYDROPROCESSING CATALYSTS
S. Shafiei Zadeh1, P. E. Georghiou2, H. Hassan Nejad3
1M.Sc. Student, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, A1B 5S7
2Professor, Department of Chemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, A1B 3X7
3Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, A1B 3X5
A process is described for the use of extractants for the removal of hazardous metals from leachates obtained from treating spent hydroprocessing catalysts with different acidic solutions. The extractants tested were toluene solutions of either Aliquat336, Alamine308, or Alamine336. The concentration of extractants, stirring time, and organic/aqueous ratio were considered as the most significant parameters. Alamine308 was selected as the most efficient extractant due to its capability to remove nickel, molybdenum, and cobalt completely in only 10 minutes with diluted solutions. Statistical modeling was also conducted using the central composite design (CCD) in Design Expert® software and ANOVA results are presented.
Keywords: Hydroprocessing catalysts, Hydrometallurgy, Solvent Extraction, Hazardous metals
REQUIREMENT OF PRE-PROCESSING IN A WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE) PLANT BASED ON INDIAN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW)
G. P. Misra1*, P. Kaushal2, A. K. Bhaskarwar3, P. D. Grover3
1Teri University, New Delhi, India
2Assistant Professor of Energy & Environment Dept, Teri University, New Delhi, India
3Professor Department of Chemical Engg, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India
4Ex Professor Department of Chemical Engg, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India
Globally, mass incineration is the most commonly used waste-to-energy (WtE) technology for processing of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). In such plants, the MSW, as received, is kept in a bunker for approximately 7 days for reduction of moisture, and homogenization. The waste is then subjected to controlled combustion in a mass-burn incinerator for the production of heat or electricity. However, in developing countries like India, characteristics of waste are substantially different from those in developed countries. Most projects based on incineration technologies in India have failed and been forced to shut down. The problems encountered with these plants, include low calorific value of MSW, inefficient combustion of waste and environmental pollution concerns. These problems have been attributed to poor source segregation of waste, high moisture content, and mixing of construction and demolition debris, road sweepings, and drain silt in MSW amongst various other reasons. The combination of these problems have made the combustion of raw MSW (mass incineration) challenging. Therefore, this paper recommends that mixed MSW in countries like India should be subjected to extensive mechanical pre-processing, so that the organically rich fraction, combustible fraction and inert materials can be separated. The materials derived through this process (refuse derived fuel or combustibles) have a higher calorific value, high volatile matter, a higher combustion rate, and a lower moisture content as compared with mixed waste. All of these factors aid in more efficient burning, lower environmental pollution and a higher yield per unit. The inert materials left over as a result of this process can be disposed in sanitary landfills, and the organically rich fraction can be used to generate compost or biogas.
Keywords: Solid Waste Management in India, Waste-to-Energy (WtE), Mass Incineration, Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Combustion, Pre-processing of mixed MSW
ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANT ADSORPTION IN CHEMICALLY MODIFIED FORESTRY PINUS ELLIOTTI SPP BARKS
Thiago Caique Alvesa, Adílson Pinheiroa, Daniel Schwantesb e Affonso Celso Gonçalves Jr.b
aFundação Universidade Regional de Blumenau
bUniversidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná
Anthropogenic activities generate waste products, which consist of an emerging and troubling class of organic micropollutants (OMPs). These contaminants can damage human and environmental health, being present in hospitals and agricultural wastewater, with the aggravating factor of not being effectively removed in treatment plants. Of the available waste treatment technologies, adsorption appears to be the most promising, because it does not promote the formation of degradation by-products, which may exhibit a similar, or even greater, hazard to primary compounds. In this context, the present study assessed the adsorption potential of seven hormones (natural and synthetic) using two adsorbents prepared from Pinus eliotti spp. barks. An activated carbon commonly used in treatment plants was used as a control. The adsorption experiments were carried out with spiked samples at a 1 mg L-1 contaminant concentration, at doses of adsorbent material that are capable of removing 80% of the concentration of contaminants (D80). The materials were prepared by acidic or basic hydrolysis, being characterized by the addition of pine sulphur (PS) and potassium to their surfaces. The analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection. The possibility that the effect of electronegativity of the medium would interfere in the removal of the hormones was also evaluated. A comparison of the three materials showed that the activated carbon provided the most favourable outcome. However, it was found that the material containing sulphur was 58.4% less effective than the commercial material. The materials, particularly the PS, can be used to remove OMPs; however, improvements must be made. The relationships between adsorption and the characteristics of adsorbents and interferents should also be evaluated.
Keywords: Wastewater treatment, natural adsorbent, micropollutant treatment
ANAEROBIC CO–DIGESTION OF ORGANIC WASTE: INFLUENCES PARTICLE SIZE AND CONCENTRATION TOTAL SOLIDS
Valderi Duarte Leite*, Crislânne Lemos Viriato, José Tavares de Sousa,
Wilton Silva Lopes, Elaine Gurjão de Oliveira
Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, University of Paraiba State,
Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil
In this investigation we studied the influence of particle size and concentration of total solids in the process of anaerobic co-digestion of vegetable solid waste with anaerobic sludge of sanitary sewage, in the proportion of 80 and 20% (weight percent) respectively. The experimental system consisted of nine batch anaerobic reactors with unit volume capacity of two liters. The particle sizes of the waste investigated were 1.68, 2.00, 3.36 mm and total solids concentration of 30.0, 40.0 and 50.5 gTS.L-1 with an experimental design consisting of three different treatments and three repetitions and 200-day monitoring period. The most representative efficiency of transformation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous material was observed in the treatment with substrate with particle size of 1.68 and concentration of total solids of 30.0 gTS.L-1. Therefore, it was evidenced that the biogas production rate was inversely proportional to the particle size and the concentration of total solids of the substrate when submitted to the anaerobic co-digestion process.
Keywords: anaerobic; vegetable solid waste; anaerobic sludge; biogas production
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: PROBLEMS, PROSPECTS, AND POLICIES
C. C. Ike1, C. C. Ezeibe1, S. C. Anijiofor2,3*, N. N. Nik Daud2
1Department of Political Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
2Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Putra, Malaysia, Selangor Malaysia
3Civil Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
Solid waste management is a major environmental challenge in most Nigerian cities. Waste generation rate in Nigeria is estimated at 0.65-0.95 kg/capita/day which gives an average of 42 million tonnes of wastes generated annually. This is more than half of 62 million tonnes of waste generated in sub-Sahara Africa annually and where and how to channel these wastes becomes a huge problem for the nation. This study examines the problems and prospects of solid waste management in some selected Nigerian cities using the mixed method of data collection. The findings revealed that waste management in Nigerian cities is largely monopolized by the agencies of state governments (sub-national governments) which have limited capacity to tackle the problems of solid waste management in their cities. In addition, 52 % of wastes generated are organic wastes which creates additional disposal problems. Although the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria range from poor collection and disposal methods; lack or poor waste management database; insufficient financial resources; non-compliance to laws and lack of awareness on dangers of poor sanitary habits, this paper argues that a robust waste data base, strict policies and regulation are important for effective solid waste management in Nigeria.
Keywords: Solid waste, Management, Cities, Nigeria, Government policies
LATERITIC SOIL TREATED WITH POLYVINYL WASTE POWDER AS A POTENTIAL MATERIAL FOR LINERS AND COVER IN WASTE CONTAINMENT
Ugochukwu N. Okonkwo1, Emmanuel E. Arinze2, Emmanuel I. Ugwu3
Department of Civil Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike,
P.M.B 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
Compacted lateritic soil treated with polyvinyl waste powder was considered for liners and cover in this study. The tests that were carried out on the polyvinyl waste powder and lateritic soil mixture were consistency limits, compaction test, unconfined compressive strength and hydraulic conductivity. The polyvinyl waste powder was added ranging from 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% all measured by weight of the dry soil. The specimens of the soil mixtures were prepared using two compactive energy levels namely the British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) at moulding water contents of -2, 0, +2, +4% of optimum moisture content. The results showed that consistency limits, optimum moisture content reduced while the maximum dry density rose up with increase in polyvinyl waste powder. The strength characteristics improved up to 103% and 115% for British Standard Light and West African Standard respectively while hydraulic conductivity reduced to 10-9 cm/s and 10-10 cm/s for British Standard Light and West African Standard respectively with polyvinyl waste powder up to 20%. For liners and cover of sanitary landfill, 12% and 8% treatment of polyvinyl waste powder at optimum moisture content were found suitable for British Standard Light and West African Standard respectively.
Keywords: Polyvinyl Waste Powder, Lateritic Soil and Waste Containment
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS RELATED TO WASTE DISPOSAL IN SOUTH-WESTERN, NIGERIA
Ilevbare Femi Monday*, (Ph.D.)
Population and Health Research Entity
Phone: +27 782766476
Idemudia Erhabor Sunday
Population and Health Research Entity
In recent times, there has been a global concern in addressing household waste management practices by stakeholders due to its environmental implications. The present study examined antecedents of household waste disposal in selected urban settlements of South-Western, Nigeria. Primary data were used in the study. The study population comprised residents in Ile-Ife (a traditional semi-urban); Ibadan (an extrically mixed traditional urban) and Lagos (an extrically modern community) of South-Western, Nigeria. This study sample consisted of 1200 residents comprising 687 males and 513 females selected using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Their age ranged between 15 to 76 years with a mean age of 24.49 years (SD = 8.51). Data collection was through a self-reported questionnaire that measured socio-demographic factors and waste disposal behaviour. The results showed that residents from Ibadan Northwest LGA exhibited better attitude towards waste disposal (M= 54.80; SD = 8.34) than those residents in Lagos Mainland LGA (M =53.55; SD = 8.07) and Ife Central LGA (M=52.70; SD=7.73). The result showed also that there was no significant influence of gender on waste disposal behaviour (F = 0.028, p <.05). There was no significant influence of age on waste disposal behaviour (F (= 1.70, p >.05). The results also showed that there was no influence of education on waste disposal behaviour (F = 1.54, p >.05). The study highlights the need for some intervention in order to improve waste management practices among households through urban renewal.
Keywords: Gender, age, location, education, waste disposal behaviour, urban renewal
Issue 1, February 2018
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE WASTE SLUDGE FROM PAINT BOOTH OF AUTOMOTIVE PARTS
Lucas Velloso Alves1, Lívia Nadur Novaes2, Regina Mambeli Barros3*, Gilbert Silva4,
Ivan Felipe Silva dos Santos5, Fernando das Graças Braga da Silva6
1Environmental Engineer, Federal University of Itajubá
2Master of Science in Materials Engineering, Hidraulic Engineer, Federal University of Itajubá
3Professor of Natural Resources Institute, Federal University of Itajubá, National Reference Center in Small Hydropower, (Instituto de Recursos Naturais da Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Centro Nacional de Referência em Pequenas Centrais Hidrelétricas), Av. BPS, 1303, Itajubá-MG, Brazil, 37500-903
4Professor of Mechanical Institute, Federal University of Itajubá
5Student of Master in Engineering of Energy, Hidraulic Engineer, Federal University of Itajubá
6Professor of Natural Resources Institute, Federal University of Itajubá
*Tel: +553536291224; Fax: +553536291265
The waste sludge from paint booth of the automotive industry is a significant environmental liability due to its environmental impacts caused in the course of production and the solid waste generated during the application process. The present study seeks an adequate way to reuse waste paint sludge, based on the physical, chemical, morphological, and mineralogical characterization of three samples subjected to high temperatures: waste paint sludge composed by base and varnish (WPS), deactivated waste paint sludge (DWPS), and deactivated waste varnish sludge (DWVS). First, the samples were burned in an electric muffle furnace with staggered firing temperatures in order to verify loss of mass during the firing process. The physical, morphological, chemical, and mineralogical characterizations of the samples were performed using particle size analysis by Laser Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, and X-Ray Diffraction. The firing process demonstrated a mass loss of over 90.0% of the samples, showing that there is no significant mass change over 600ºC. The experimental characterization showed occurrence of particles with diameters ranging from 1.156 – 837.1 µm, and heterogeneous agglomerates with irregular shape and sizes ranging from 2 – 300 µm. The elementary chemical composition of the samples demonstrated basically, the amounts of titanium, aluminium, silicon, and sodium; founded under cristaline phases of rutile, aluminium oxide, and quartz. The findings of this paper can be used in future studies aiming at the reuse of this waste for example into ceramic materials.
Keywords: Environmental liability; Solid waste characterization; Paint sludge
SPENT SUBSTRATES FROM THREE SPECIES OF MUSHROOM AS ALTERNATIVE FEED RESOURCES FOR RUMINANT LIVESTOCK
I. Etela,1,2* A. Ogbeide2, A.I. Ukanwoko2, O.M. Adedokun3
1Institute of Agricultural Research and Development (IARD)
2Department of Animal Science
3Department of Crop and Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, PMB 5323,
Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Three species of mushroom (Pleurotus tuber-regium; Volvariella volvaceae; Pleurotus ostreatus) were studied to determine their feed value using proximate composition, in vitro gas and methane production techniques. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), and crude protein (CP) contents differed (P < 0.05) amongst the three mushroom species while, acid detergent fibre (ADF) and ash contents were similar (P > 0.05). Pleurotus ostreatus on sawdust reached peak gas production (7.5 mL) at 15 hours after incubation while, peak gas production was recorded at 21 hours post-incubation for both V. volvacea on cotton (7.5 mL) and P. tuber-regium (5.5 mL). Significant differences (P < 0.05) were also observed for the effective gas production at the 4% and 5% rumen outflow rates. Pleurotus ostreatus on sawdust recorded the least (P < 0.05) methane gas production (2.0 mL) while, V. volvacea on cotton gave the highest (6.5 mL). The results indicate that, spent mushroom substrates (SMS) could be converted into economic benefit as meat for humans rather than being left as environmental nuisance. It was concluded that, P. ostreatus on sawdust produced the best utilized SMS in terms of digestibility and methane gas production.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BIOGAS YIELD FROM PRE-TREATED RICE HUSK CO-DIGESTED WITH ANIMAL MANURES
Florence O. Ojoa, Gbolabo A. Ogunwandeb, Olusola O. Adesanwoc
aInstitute of Ecology and Environmental Studies
bDepartment of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering
cDepartment of Soil Science and Land Resources Management
Obafemi Awolowo University
Tel.: +234 803 4007128
Rice husk (RH), a readily available lignocellulosic waste was pre-treated by soaking and boiling in water before co-digestion with three animal manures (chicken, cow and swine) in a batch type anaerobic digester. Raw RH and no RH treatments were also set up. Results showed that manure type had significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on substrate temperature, pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD), total bacterial count and biogas yield (BY) while RH treatment method had on pH, BOD and biogas yield. Cow dung treatments had the highest BY due to the low RH content. Treatments with RH had low BYs due to the high acidic nature of the RH and low available biodegradable total carbon content. In addition, treatments with RH showed no significant (p > 0.05) difference in their yields. It is therefore concluded that co-digesting RH with animal manures using the pre-treatment methods adopted is not promising for biogas production.
Keywords: Anaerobic co-digestion, Rice husk, Animal manure, Pre-treatment method, Biogas yield
EVALUATION OF EXISTING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SOLAN CITY–INDIA
Deepika Sharma, Rajiv Ganguly*
Department of Civil Engineering, Jaypee University of Information Technology,
Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173234, INDIA
Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an essential function of the Urban Local Body (ULB) of the city or town. The paper presents an overview of the existing solid waste practices followed at Salogra dumpsite located in the district of Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. Total Solid Waste generated in Himachal Pradesh (HP) is about 350 Tons per day (TPD) of which the daily average dumping at Salogra site in Solan city is about 22.5 tons per day. The per capita waste generation in Solan city is 0.4 kg/capita/day with a collection efficiency of about 60%. Of the total budgetary provisions for management of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated under the purview of Solan Municipal Corporation (MC), about 90% of them are utilized for collection and transportation purposes. The existing waste management practice at the study location was evaluated using the ‘wasteaware’ benchmark indicators which include qualitative and quantitative parameters for the assessment. In addition, a matrix method has been used for quantitative representation the results. The overall score achieved using the matrix method was only 32% indicating that there exists a significant scope for improvement in the management of the existing waste system practices in Solan. In this context, some suggestions have been proposed for improvement of the existing MSW management system in Solan.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste management, landfill, Public-private partnership, Wasteaware benchmark parameters
MANAGING THE TECHNOLOGY FOR SELECTIVELY COLLECTING SOLID WASTE IN THE WESTERN AMAZON SUB REGION
Norma Maria Coelho Vieira*, Master’s Degree in Environmental Sciences from the University of Taubaté (UNITAU), Brazil. Voluntary member of the Research Group on Innovation Management and Technology (GEITEC) at the Federal University of Rondônia (UNIR), Brazil
Marcelo José Peres Gomes da Silva, Specialist in Computer Networks and Data Communications at the State University of Londrina (UEL), Brazil
Flávio de São Pedro Filho, Doctor in Business Administration from USP. Professor of Management of UNIR. Coordinator GEITEC – Research Group Management of Innovation and Technology of the Federal University of Rondônia (UNIR), Brazil. Post-doctoral Candidate in Economics and Management, focusing on Strategy Management for Innovation and Sustainability, in the University of Beira Interior, Covilha, Portugal
Maria José Aguilar Madeira, Ph.D. in Management and Economics at the University of Beira Interior (UBI), Covilha, Portugal
Fabricio Moraes de Almeida, Doctor in Physics, Professor and Researcher for the Doctoral Course in Regional Development and Environment at the Federal University of Rondônia (UNIR), Brazil, Deputy Coordinator of GEITEC – Research Group on Management for Innovation and Technology, UNIR
This study‘s main objective is to study the complexity of technological management of the collection of solid waste, through the prism of reverse logistics; and to propose certain specific objectives: (1) to describe the form of concentration of solid waste in the group studied; (2) to analyze the impact of the volume of solid waste; and (3) to propose intervention measures for solid waste management. It asks what technology management model should guide the selective collection of solid waste in the Amazon. Based on the theory of convergence, it studies the strategy of competitive advantage in understanding the organizational system in the environment in which it operates; on this theory, Nobre (2011) addresses knowledge as a source that transmits competitive edge in order to contribute to a company’s organizational system. The research is qualitative and descriptive; it applies the Case Study method, and related procedures. As a study, it confirms that the investigated collector cooperatives are vulnerable, which influences the conclusions of this study. It finds that the collectors employed by these organizations are the significant environmental agents in the process of reusing and recycling materials and thus play a key role in reverse logistics because they can return the waste to the production chain adding value and promoting shared management,. The results also point to the absence of a system to promote environmental education, despite the potential viability of the materials and regardless of the possible economic and social improvements to the Amazonians and their families. The system proposed here involves the selective collection of solid waste by intelligent machines, applying reverse logistics. This study could benefit business people, the government and other stakeholders in public policy and sustainability in fragile environments such as the Brazilian Amazon.
Keywords: Amazon. Management. Innovation. Solid Waste. Technology
SIMULATION OF HEAVY METALS MOVEMENT AND CHANGE IN CONCENTRATION IN SHALLOW UNCONFINED AQUIFER IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA USING VISUAL MODFLOW AND MT3DMS
Peter Aderemi Adeoye*, Musa John Jiya and Abayomi Ibrahim Kuti
Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering
Federal University of Technology
P.M.B.65, Minna Nigeria
Shallow groundwater is a major water source for rural people in Minna, a rapidly growing city in North-central Nigeria. However, indiscriminate dumping and poor poultry waste management in and around the city have threatened the quality of this water source. Visual MODFLOW was used to study the loading, dynamics fate and transport of some heavy metals in Minna shallow aquifer while MT3DMS was used to predict the concentration of the heavy metals in one, three and five years’ time. Conceptual model approach was employed for the simulation with the model domain discretized into 50cells each in x and y directions. Results showed that the whole aquifer was strongly contaminated with arsenic, copper and Zinc. This was presented as colour shading by visual MODFLOW. Initial concentrations of arsenic copper and zinc were 0.74mg/L, 8.43mg/L and 11.63mg/l respectively as against 0.01mg/l, 2.00mg/L and 5.00 mg/L recommended as maximum allowable contamination (MAC) for drinking water by WHO. MT3DMS predicted a progressive reduction in heavy metals concentration. For instance, a reduction in value to 0.60 mg/L, 7.51 mg/L and 4.20 mg/l were predicted for arsenic, zinc and copper respectively over five-years period. The study also revealed that the polluted shallow aquifer in Minna can be cleaned up of these heavy metals after some years.
Keywords: Contamination, prediction, shallow aquifer, heavy metals, concentration change and visual MODFLOW
COMPARISON IN THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND
MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WASTE COAL COMBUSTION RESIDUES (CCR) GENERATED FROM FBC AND PCC BOILER USING THE SAME ORIGIN OF COAL
A.K. Mandal, O.P. Sinha
Department of Metallurgical Engineering
IIT(BHU), Varanasi, India
In the present study comparison in the physicochemical and microstructural characterization of waste coal combustion residues (CCR) generated from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) as well as pulverized coal combustion (PCC) boiler was done. CCR were collected from two different types of the boiler having an almost same capacity as well as uses the same origin of coal for combustion. Due to lower temperature in FBC boiler, generated CCR are relatively denser in structure as comparison to CCR generated in PCC boiler. The generation of temperature is more than the ash melting temperature in PCC boiler which results the presence of alumina and silica in CCR as combined form of aluminosilicate. In FBC boiler, due to lower temperature, CCR have silica and alumina in free form. Oxides of both CCR like silica, alumina, and iron oxide are same but its percentage quantity is different in each CCR. Heavy metal content (like iron) is higher in bottom ash than fly ash in both PCC as well as FBC. At high temperature, ash got melted, and volatile material got entrapped to form cenosphere in PCC boiler which causes hollow cenosphere in major quantity. In FBC boiler, mainly solid structure of Fly Ash is observed due to absence of such phenomenon for lower temperature generation. Due to the presence of aluminosilicate in PCC Fly Ash, it can be used as a hard wear-resistant material. On the other hand, presence of free, uncombined alumina and silica in FBC Bottom Ash can facilitate for easy recovery of alumina, silica. Based on the different physicochemical properties it can be concluded that these wastes (CCR) should be exploited for preparing commercially viable products like bricks, tiles etc. apart from land filling. It will also control environmental problems by avoiding solid waste dumping.
Keywords: Coal Combustion Residues; FBC and PCC boilers; Fly Ash; Bottom Ash; Physicochemical characterization
A PRELIMINARY COMPARISON OF MSW BIOREFINERY CONFIGURATIONS BASED ON PROCESS AND MATERIAL FLOWS, POWER PRODUCTION AND VALUE-ADDED PRODUCTS
Meckraz Chitamun, Ackmez Mudhoo*
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
University of Mauritius, Reduit 80837, Mauritius
Phone: +2304037772, Fax: +2304657144
This study investigated the potential of a biomass-based biorefinery in Mauritius using municipal solid wastes (MSW). Process selection and scenarios were worked out and the scenarios selected for the MSW biorefinery were anaerobic digestion (scenario A); material recovery facility system (scenario B); scenarios A and B (scenario C (a)); scenario C (a) with production of levulinic acid (scenario C (b)) and gasification (scenario D). The useful products from the MSW biorefinery were power, digested matter for composting, digestates for fertiliser, metals, glass and levulinic acid. The scenarios selected were analysed based on technical and economic parameters. For the technical analysis, 19.98 ton/h to 53.96 ton/h of MSW were processed in the MSW biorefinery. Ash produced varied from 0 to 3.76 ton/h. Carbon dioxide emissions were 2.83-26.97 tCO2e/h. The discounted payback period for the scenarios varied from 6.86-12.11 years, and the internal rate of return ranged from 15.47 to 24.56%. This study has shown that the best MSW biorefinery option is a combined process comprising anaerobic digestion, material recovery facility and the production of levulinic acid.
Keywords: Municipal solid wastes; biorefinery; sustainability; payback; emissions
IMPROVEMENT OF EXPANSIVE SOIL PROPERTIES USING SAWDUST
Shulin Sun1, Bo Liu1, Tianyu Wang2
1College of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
2Jilin Electric Power Survey and Design Institute, Changchun 130000, China
This paper presents a study on using sawdust to improve properties of expansive soil. The swelling properties, unconfined compressive strength, shearing strength characteristics, and cyclic wetting-drying behavior of stabilized soil were studied. The optimum addition of sawdust was found to be 7.5%. The test results indicate that the swelling potential and swelling pressure decreases with the increased sawdust addition. The strength properties such as unconfined compressive strength, shearing strength, cohesion and friction angle increases with addition of sawdust up to an optimum value of about 7.5%, beyond which the strength properties begin to decrease. The unconfined compressive strength values increased with the increased curing period and the rate of strength gaining is initially higher and decreases after day 14. The cyclic wetting-drying tests show that the volume and cohesion of soil decrease with increased wetting-drying cycles while the friction angle values remained approximately constant. The addition of sawdust can effectively reduce the influence of drying and wetting cycles on the volumetric change and the shear strength parameters of soil.
Keywords: Sawdust; expansive soil; swelling properties; unconfined compressive strength; shearing strength; cyclic wetting-drying
ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD FOOD WASTE REDUCTION
TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT
Innocent A. Jereme1, Chamhuri Siwar1, Rawshan Ara Begum2,
Basri Abdul Talib3, Er Ah Choy1
1Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)
2Institute for Climate Change
3Faculty of Business and Economics
National University of Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia
Bangi 43600, Selangor D.E, Malaysia
Food wastes generations have continued to increase in recent years in Malaysia. According to the Ministry of Housing and Local Government (MHLG), food wastes have outstripped other solid wastes generated in Malaysia, constituting more than 40 percent of the total wastes disposed in 2010. From the MHLG data, food wastes disposed from households were more than other sources. Its existence in the wastes stream can always contaminate and complicate any effort to recover and recycle other dry wastes. Furthermore, the environmental impacts are enormous, including depletion of water sources, cause climate change, and affects human health when disposed at unsanitary landfills, and as well food security. Therefore, the study aims to investigate the current status of food wastes in Malaysia towards sustainable food waste management. Purposive non-random sampling method was applied to collect primary data through structured questionnaire from 333 respondents, 257 respondents were from Selangor, a developed state, and 76 from Terengganu, an underdeveloped state. To achieve the aims and objectives of this study, a statistical analysis with Structural Equation Model (SEM) was applied. Findings showed these variables: government policies on households’ food waste management, environmental knowledge, households’ environmental awareness, reducing food waste generation with food waste hierarchy have significant impacts towards reduction of food waste generation to achieving sustainable food waste management at households’ levels. The implication of the findings leads to the conclusion that sustainable food wastes management is not only about behavioural issues, but rather policies and regulations issues. It is suggested that government should have strong and important roles to play by formulating households’ food wastes policies, and provisions of infrastructural facilities that could lead to reducing food wastes at households, and at the same time creating awareness of the negative impacts of food wastes on the natural environment and to the economy as well. This could definitely lead to change of behaviours by households towards the issues of food wastes reduction.
Keywords: Sustainable food waste management, food waste generation, food waste, households and behaviour