Volume 45, 2019

Issue 1, February 2019

USE OF RED CERAMIC INDUSTRY RESIDUE FOR STRUCTURAL MASONRY BLOCKS PRODUCTION IN AMAZON

 

M.O. Souza1, D.R.C. Oliveira2

1Sanitation Engineer / UFPA, Specialist in Natural Resource Management, NAEA / UFPA;

M.S. Constructive Process Engineering and Urban Sanitation-ITEC / UFPA

2Civil Engineer, M.S. in Structures and Civil Construction, UNB; Dr. in Structure, UNB; Ph.D. in Architecture, Imperial College of London

Department of Civil Engineering of the Institute of Technology

Federal University of Pará-UFPA, Av. Augusto Corrêa 01, Room 24, CEP 66075-970, Belém, PA-Brazil

 

ABSTRACT

 

The ceramic pottery industry of the state of Amapá suffers significant production losses because of the fragility of the drying and firing processes. The average loss is 5 %, and can reach values of 33 %, representing high operational and environmental costs and low productivity. This study investigated the utilization of red ceramic waste produced in the city of Macapá, state of Amapá, as raw material for the production of structural ceramic blocks. Initially, the mineralogical characterization of clay and chamotte was performed. For the physical tests, the prismatic and cylindrical specimens were produced. Six compositions of mixture of clay and chamotte, in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % of chamotte mass were prepared. The firing process occurred at temperatures of 850, 950 and 1050 °C, with gradient of 2.5 °C/min. The properties evaluated were linear shrinkage, loss on ignition, apparent porosity, water absorption, bulk density, flexural and compressive strength, color and vitrification curves. The addition of chamotte in percentages of up to 25 % resulted in technological properties of ceramic components with values suitable for the production of structural ceramic blocks.

Keywords: Red ceramic, structural ceramic blocks, incorporation of waste to ceramic aggregate

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 PROMOTION OF PLANT GROWTH IN SOILS DEGRADED BY URBAN MINING THROUGH THE ADDITION OF CONSTRUCTION

AND DEMOLITION WASTE

 

  1. Castro1, A. Rosso1, W. Osorio2, J.I. Tobón3, E. Mejía4

 

1Universidad de San Buenaventura sede Medellín, Facultad de Ingeniería

2Grupo de microbiología del suelo, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, Colombia

3Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de la Construcción Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín

4Institución Universitaria Pascual Bravo – Facultad de Ingeniería– Grupo de Investigación GIIAM –Dirección: Calle 73 No. 73A – 226, Código Postal 050034 – Medellín – Colombia

erica.mejia@pascualbravo.edu.co

 

ABSTRACT

 

Construction and demolition processes produce approximately 50% of all urban waste. The production of construction and demolition waste (CDW) and the consumption of raw materials have increased in order to satisfy the demand generated by a demographic explosion in cities. As a result, the extraction of raw materials has become an unsustainable activity that utilizes approximately 50% of non-renewable natural resources. This generates eco-systemic changes that can alter the biological equilibrium; the most representative changes are the loss of soil and vegetation, which hinder the implementation of environmental services such as landscaping, recreation, water retention, and agricultural activities, among others. For this reason, it is necessary to generate new options that will permit the recycling of CDW. One option is to use this waste as a source of nutrients for degraded soils, which would make it possible to mitigate the environmental impacts caused by both mining and this solid waste. This study evaluated the effect of adding construction and demolition waste to urban soils degraded by the clay extraction process on the establishment of the plant species Leucaena leucocephala. The results showed that the addition of CDW modified the soil pH and improved nutrient availability. After planting, it was found that the leaf phosphorus concentration in the treatment without waste (control) was of 0.0170 (g Kg-1), while in the treatment with waste it was of 0.308 (g Kg-1), the height and diameter were double the height and diameter for the control, the aerial dry mass was 2.6 times greater than the control and the total phosphorus was 1.4 times greater than the control. These results are important because they confirm that CDW can be used in restoration programs for soils degraded by mining.

Keywords: Degraded Soils, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW), Promotion of plant growth

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BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:

A CRITICAL REVIEW

 

Agnes Anto Chembukavua, Arif Mohammada, Devendra Narain Singhb*

 

aResearch Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering

bInstitute Chair Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,

Powai, Mumbai 400076, India

Phone: +91-22-2576-7340; Fax: +91-22-2576-7302

dns@civil.iitb.ac.in

 

ABSTRACT

 

Landfilling is the most common method for disposing the municipal solid waste, MSW, especially in developing countries. However, the issues pertaining to land acquisition, unhygienic conditions at the landfills and environmental pollution due to intentional/accidental fires are becoming a big nuisance to the town planners and populace. In order to overcome these issues, the bioreactor landfill, BLF, wherein degradation of the MSW and generation of landfill gases, LFG, can be accelerated, has been found to be a better MSW management strategy. However, in the recent past, BLFs have been criticized for their inefficiency and questions have been raised on their suitability as the ‘right approach’ to dispose the MSW. This calls for a critical evaluation of the issues pertaining to the effective functioning of BLFs such as (i) MSW decomposition characteristics, (ii) leachate recirculation system (iii) energy generation potential, of the LFG, (iv) estimation of the mining time and sustainable applications of the mined residues and (v) rigorous performance monitoring. A review of existing literature has been conducted and it is believed that such a ‘fact finding exercise’ would be helpful in creating guidelines related to the design, construction, operation and monitoring of a BLF, particularly in developing countries. Furthermore, based on this exercise the efficacy of BLF could be ameliorated by implementing techniques and/or methods to: (i) amend leachate characteristics for achieving decomposition of the recalcitrant fractions in the MSW, (ii) facilitate non-invasive and economical monitoring of the decomposition of the MSW, (iii) estimate accurately the time required for stabilization of the MSW and (iv) recover the resource from the mined residues.

Keywords: Municipal solid waste; bioreactor landfill; leachate; landfill gas; mined residues; monitoring

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RECYCLING COPPER AND POLYSTYRENE FROM SOLID WASTE STREAM IN DEVELOPING CONDUCTIVE COMPOSITES

 

 A. Abdulkareem, A. G. Adeniyi*

 

P.M. B. 1515, Chemical Engineering Department

University of Ilorin

Nigeria

remson414@yahoo.co.uk

 

ABSTRACT

 

Combining Polystyrene and copper waste in the production of conductive composite is of combined economic and environmental sustainability interest. In the present work, conductive composites of micro copper particle and a solvated polystyrene resin were prepared. The graded copper particles were thoroughly mixed with the solvated polystyrene resin by simple mechanical stirring, using hand lay-up process and cold pressing into the desired shapes. The conductive composites were prepared with varying content of copper and the electrical conductivity of the resulting composites was determined using a four point probe method. The composites were further characterised using laboratory-made density setup and metallurgical microscopy. A conductivity of 4.57 × 10−8 S cm−1 was achieved with 10 wt% loading of copper and a maximum conductivity of 2.53 × 10−7 S cm−1 was achieved with 40 wt% of copper content. The density and microscopy results showed that the composites have increasing conductive network as the composition of copper increased in the solvated polystyrene matrix. The obtained results for the conductive composites prepared indicated a high potential for their successful use in electrical and electromagnetic applications.

Keywords: Copper waste, polystyrene waste, Conductive composites, recycling

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COAL BOTTOM ASH BLENDED WITH FLY ASH AND PORTLAND CEMENT AS A TECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCT IN ROAD PAVING

 

Luciano Moises Sippert Santarema, Karine da Rocha Alvesb, Sydney Sabedotc*

 

aDepartamento Nacional de Infraestrutura de Transportes (DNIT), Rua Siqueira Campos,

664, CEP 90010-000, Porto Alegre, Brazil

bDepartamento Nacional de Infraestrutura de Transportes (DNIT), Rua Siqueira Campos,

664, CEP 90010-000, Porto Alegre, Brazil

cUnilasalle, Av. Victor Barreto, 2288, CEP 92010-000, Canoas, Brazil

Phone: 55 51 3476 8500, Fax: 55 51 3472 3511

sydney.sabedot@unilasalle.edu.br

 

ABSTRACT

 

This study evaluated the mechanical behavior of 16 blends with the use of coal bottom ash and varied proportions of fly ash and composite Portland cement. Assays of mechanical characterization in bottom ash and blends with Proctor assays, Resistance to Simple Compressive with 7, 14, 28, 84 days curing time and California Bearing Ratio were applied. The main results of this study indicated that the bottom ash is a material of group A-4 in the TRB classification; the blend composed of 87% bottom ash, 5% fly ash, 8% cement is the ideal blend, with RSC7 of 2.29 MPa, suitable for base and sub-base of highways, according to Brazilian standard DNIT 143/2010-ES; the blends with cement ratio below 8% do not comply with the Brazilian standard for a minimum strength of 2.1 MPa; the bottom ash presented a better support capacity than some soils.

Keywords: Coal bottom ash, road paving, pavement blend, mechanical characterization, highway alternative material

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CONCENTRATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION OF POLYBROMINATEDDIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) IN THE DUMPSITE SOIL OF THE OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY, ILE-IFE, NIGERIA

 

Godwin O. Olutona1*, John A. O. Oyekunle2, Aderemi O. Ogunfowokan2,

Olalekan S. Fatoki3, Abolanle S. Adekunle2

 

1Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology,

Cape Town, South Africa

Phone: +2348132406932

delog2@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

 

Soil samples from the dumpsite of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria were assessed on seasonal basis for their levels of polybrominateddiphenyl ethers. Isolation of the target PBDEs compounds was done using soxhlet extractor. Extracts obtained were subjected to a multi-layer column chromatography employing different forms of silica gel. The prepared samples were analysed using GC-MS. The mean values and range (ng/g) of PBDEs were: BDE 28 (0.79±0.72; Nd-1.65); BDE 47 (0.36±0.34, Nd-0.84); BDE 99 (0.85±0.59, Nd-1.74); BDE 100 (1.04±0.98, Nd-2.48); BDE153 (13.8±29.2, Nd-106); and BDE 154 (0.74±0.98, Nd-3.19). Total burden of the PBDEs in 0-15 cm soil layer were higher than those in the 15-30 cm layer. The results of this study indicated that the levels of PBDEs were higher in the dumpsite soil samples during wet season which portend high risk to human and the environment.

Keywords: Emerging contaminants; Endocrine chemicals; Flame retardants; Persistent organic pollutant; waste electrical and electronic equipment.

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APPLICATION OF DETERMINISTIC, STOCHASTIC AND FUZZY

LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODELS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT STUDIES:  LITERATURE REVIEW

 

  1. Vivekanand1, Dr. G.S. Prakash2

 

1Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management

2Professor & Head of Department, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management

Ramaiah Institute of Technology, M.S Ramaiah Nagar, MSRIT Post, Bangalore – 560054, Karnataka, India

vivekanand@msrit.edu, Phone (011) (91) 9952716390

prakash5636@yahoo.com, Phone (011) (91) 9448226933

ABSTRACT

 

This paper focuses on providing details about the mathematical model’s which were applied to solid waste management from the period 1960 onwards. The main focus is on the deterministic, stochastic and fuzzy linear programming for solid waste management studies. The whole purpose is to provide a beginner and researcher detailed information on how the objective function, constraints and decision variables have been created for solving a solid waste management problem. It also provides a detailed explanation on some of the major papers which have been widely referred and used by various other researchers who have been studying solid waste management models. In addition, this literature study can be made useful to various person who are planning to conduct study or research or apply linear programming techniques either deterministic, stochastic or fuzzy models to solid waste management area.

Keywords: Solid Waste Management, Linear Programming, Fuzzy Logic, Optimization, Stochastic programming, Goal Programming

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IMPACT OF PLANT NUTRIENTS ON PREDICTION OF WHEAT

CROP YIELD FROM POND ASH AMENDED FIELD

BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

 

R.C. Tripathi*, Senior Principal Scientist & Head,

  1. K. Kalyani, S. K Jha, N. K. Srivastava, S. K. Thakur

 

Industrial Biotechnology and Waste Utilisation Group

CSIR- Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research

Digwadih Campus, Dhanbad (Jharkhand) India

Phone: 91-326-2388325/327, Fax: 091-326-2381385

rctripathicfri@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT

 

In India presently, 145 existing Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) contribute about 70% of the total energy requirement and produce approximately 184 million metric tons of fly ash per year, which is projected to exceed 440 million metric tons per annum by 2030. This quantity of fly ash generated poses significant environmental problems, besides occupying large areas of land for its dumping, requiring appropriate measures for its safe disposal and gainful utilization on sustainable basis. Based on the field demonstration work carried out on the bulk utilization of pond ash in agriculture and forestry sectors under different agro-climatic conditions and soil types for the last two decades, it has been well established that pond ash has significant potential for utilization as liming agent, soil conditioner, source of plant nutrients and also for boosting the growth and yield of a variety of crops. Some field scale studies carried out especially in the waste/alkaline lands of State Agriculture Research Farm and farmers’ fields are discussed in the present paper for the development of artificial neural network (ANN) for the correlation of crop yields and plant nutrients.

As such, the influence of major plant nutrients viz. N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S on the yield of wheat crops cultivated in different soil types and agro-climatic conditions is discussed. Furthermore, an attempt has also been made to develop a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) model. Satisfactorily enough, it has been found that the predictions of the developed ANN model are in quite good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Neural networks, Pond ash, Agro-climatic conditions, Plant nutrients, Wheat crop

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A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE

CONTAMINATION IN AN AQUIFER WITH A COMPLEX

HYDROGEOLOGICAL SETTING—APPLICATION OF A

COUPLED ESTIMATION METHOD

 

Kazuei Ishii1, Atsushi Fujiyama, Masahiro Sato, Toru Furuichi

Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University

Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan

TEL +81-011-706-7284 FAX +81-011-706-7287

k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

 

1,4-Dioxane can be transported over a longer distance along groundwater flow than other organic contaminants because its sorption on soil particles, biodegradation, and evaporation can be negligible. It can be also transported more complexly, which is reflected in the complex groundwater flow, such as the regional groundwater flow that may not be detected by hydraulic head data only. This study attempted to identify parameters in flow and transport simulation for 1,4-dioxane groundwater contamination at a real illegal dumping site for hazardous waste in Japan. At the site, three aquifers are flowing in different directions and vertical groundwater appears to flow among these aquifers through the waste layer and/or thin clay layers. The second and third aquifers were significantly contaminated by 1,4-dioxane, although the waste layers did not reach the third aquifer and vertical slurry walls were constructed around the waste layer. This study applied a coupled estimation method that can simultaneously determine the parameters related to both flow and transport, such as hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity and dispersivity, using observed hydraulic head data as well as observed concentration data. The results revealed the existence of vertical groundwater flows between the second and third aquifers as being a complex and regional groundwater flow. Both the vertical groundwater flows and the construction of vertical walls affected the distribution of the 1,4-dioxane. This study showed that the coupled estimation method was able to present a regional groundwater flow that may not be found by the groundwater head data because the data on 1,4-dioxane concentration was effectively used to predict complex and regional groundwater flow, and helped predict the 1,4-dioxane concentration distribution in groundwater with higher accuracy.

Keywords: 1,4-dioxane, complex geological conditions, three-dimensional simulation, coupled estimation method

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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MONROVIA, LIBERIA:

IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

 

Victor Emery David Jr.a*, Jiang Wenchaoa, Yasinta Johna, Daniel Mmerekib

 

aFaculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering,

Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400045, PR China

bDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development,

Ton Duc Thang University, No. 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7,

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

emerydavid2011@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

 

The population of Monrovia is increasing accompanied by rapid urbanization. Due to rapid urbanization, economic development, higher living standards and changes in consumption patterns and lifestyle, the generation rate of waste has increased. Mismanagement of solid waste tends to hinder any progress towards environmental sustainability. This study endeavored to determine the adequacy of waste management services in the city, explore the linkage between population and development and the increase in the generation of wastes. The study assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively behavioral factors including knowledge, attitude and practices of solid waste management, collaboration among stakeholders, and challenges related to sustainable waste management in Monrovia. Households were selected randomly (simple and stratified) to show the socio-economic groups in the city. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants or personnel in charge of waste management and the use of questionnaires captured vital information on waste management in the city. The major findings showed the main proportion of waste generated in Monrovia was organic refuse (40.2%) followed by plastic (14.2%). Waste generated are inadequately disposed of due to the inadequate collection system, as large fragment of waste remain uncollected resulting in open dumping and burning of wastes. These waste management challenges have become heightened as a result of insufficient technology to ensure proper management, low budgetary allocations for effective waste management, lack of skilled professionals, poor implementation of regulations to ensure adequate management, and poor public awareness.

 Keywords: Sustainable waste management, Sustainable development, Municipal Solid Waste Management, Policy, Monrovia, Liberia

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SOLID WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

PRACTICES IN RURAL COMMUNITIES,

TEHRAN AND ALBORZ (IRAN)

 

Ali Reza Asgari1, 2, Tahereh Ghorbanian2, Daryoush Dadashzadeh2, Fatemeh Khalili3,

Ahmad Reza Yari4, Amin Bagheri5, Nader Yousefi1, *,

Seid Kamal Ghadiri6, Seyedeh Solmaz Talebi7

 

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran, University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran

3Environment and Occupational Health Center, National Institute of Health Research,

Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran

4Research Center for Environmental Pollutants, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

5Department of Health, Safety and Environment, School of Public Health & Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

7Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

Tel: +982188954914; yousefinader@gmail.com

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The aim of this study was to determine the quality (composition) of solid waste of rural communities in Tehran and Alborz provinces and current conditions of the solid waste management in this area. 18 villages were chosen and after primary training of people, information about the collection, transport, and disposal of these wastes was obtained by questionnaires. In most villages, the waste collection method was door to door. The results showed that the average household waste generation rate was 0.44 kg.cap-1.day-1 and the highest waste generation rate was in spring. The composition of household waste consisted of organic and food waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, metals, rubber, textiles, glass, woods, and other waste as 46.14%, 6.2%, 6.8%, 5.45%, 3.28%, 4.35%, 4.97%, 9.31%, 5.28%, respectively. Source separation and recycling programs can be considered as an effective approach for the solid waste management in these areas due to 23.42 % of generated waste were directly recyclable. The mean density of household waste was 442 kg.m-3, while the maximum and minimum density of the generated waste were 441.5 ± 138.87 and 346.97±101.74 in summer and fall, respectively. The total amount of agricultural wastes was 619321.612 ton. yr-1. According to the obtained results, providing a systematic waste management approach by considering the source segregation of waste for separation of the recyclable wastes and compost of organic and food wastes is recommended.

Keywords: Solid waste management, Rural Community, Tehran, Alborz, Composting, Recycling, Physical Composition

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