Proceedings of

26th International Conference on

Solid Waste Technology and Management

Philadelphia, PA USA

March 27-30, 2011

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 Table of Contents


Biological and Chemical Treatment


The Impact Of Compaction, Moisture Content And Particle Size On Initial Physical Properties Of Organic Solid Wastes Before Composting

Joachim Huet, Céline Druilhe, Anne Tremier, France




Energy Recovery


Renewable Energy from Wastes in Queensland: A Policy Overview

Dr Georgina Davis, Australia


Design And Mathematical Modelling Of Low LCV Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator M. Ben Oumarou, A. Tijani Sulaiman, M. Dauda, Nigeria


Organic Rankine Cycle Integration Into LFG Engine And Efw Facility For Energy Efficiency Improvement

Heping Cui, Thomas Hart, David Mcquillan, Joseph Becker, USA




Recycling 1


Active Management of Solid Waste Provides Maximum Diversion and Cost Benefit

Sue Beets, Randy Van Winkle, USA


Development Of An Estimation Method For The Collectable Bio-Wastes As Inputs Of Regional Biogasification Systems

Kazuei Ishii, Toru Furuichi, Sho Watanabe, Japan




Use of Agricultural Wastes


Crosslinking of Collagen Nanofibrils

Gennaro J Maffia, Kathryn Scherpf, USA


Recycling Of Date-Palm Wastes For Phosphate Removal

Zianab Z. Ismail, Phd, Iraq


Gluconic Acid Production From Breadfruit Peel Hydrolysate Using Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Niger

Dr. Eriola Betiku, Olalekan Saheed Alade, Adebayo Fetuga, Sherif Jabar, Morufat Adenekan, Opeyemi Adedoyin, Nigeria

Valorization Of Wine Industry Wastes By Mesophilic Anaerobic Reaction

Andrea Fabbri, Giuseppe Bonifazi, Silvia Serranti, Italy


Optimal Valorisation Of Waste Towards A Cost-Effective Sustainable ‘Zero Waste’ Practice: A Waste-To-Wealth Approach Of The Songhai Centre

Forbid George Teke, Fon Dorothy Engwali, Günter Busch, Professor, Reinhard Frey, Germany




Construction and Demolition Wastes


Heterogeneous Construction And Demolition Waste As Raw Material For The Production Of Lightweight Aggregates

Alexander Schnell, Anette Mueller, Germany


Innovative In-Situ Sensing Techniques For Demolition Waste Quality Assessment

Giuseppe Bonifazi, Silvia Serranti, Italy


Influence Of Recycled Concrete Aggregates On Specific Gravity And Absorption Rates Of Mixes

Vahid Ayan, Seyed Masoud Nasr Azadani, Mukesh C Limbachiya, United Kingdom




Recycling 2


Contents of Strategic Metals in the Fines from Processed Printed Circuit Board Assemblies (PCBAs) and in components from PCBAs

Bastian Wens, Thomas Pretz, Germany


Material Recycling Vs. Tire-Derived Fuel Combustion For Scrap Tire Treatment: Comparative Attributional And Consequential Life Cycle Assessments

Rebe Feraldi, Melissa Huff, Sarah Cashman, USA


Aspects Of The Resource Recovery From Mixed Municipal Solid Wastes

Nico Schmalbein, Th. Pretz, Germany


Waste Minimisation And The Challenges Experienced

Elaine Prosper, South Africa


Surface Characterization Of Metallic Particles In A Secondary Resource Stream And The Processing Implication

I. O. Ogunniyi, Vermaak, M. K. G., Nigeria




Landfill 1


Determination of the Natural Attenuation Process at a Disposal Site in the State of Mexico

Edgar Carlos García Maya, Ma. Guadalupe Macedo Miranda, Sonia Mireya Martínez Gallegos, México


Comparative Study Six Leachate Recycling Volumes On Municipal Solid Waste Hernández-Berriel, Márquez-Benavides, E.A. Mendoza-Chávez, México


Use Of Catalysts For Enhancing Of Cod And Nh3-N Removal From Landfill Leachate By Ultrasound Method

Dr. Amir Hossein Mahvi, Iran


Effect of Leachate Recirculation on Heavy Metal Migration in Landfill: Case Study on Cu And Zn

Yuyang Long, Hongtao Wang, Wenjing Lu, China


The Remedial Works On Old Sanitary Landfills With The Use Of Waste Materials Eugeniusz Koda, Poland


Survey On The Effect Of Landfill Leachate Of Shahrood City On Ground Water Quality

Dr. Amir Hossein Mahvi, Iran




Contaminated Sites


Pollution Characteristics And Detoxification Treatment Of The Chromium-Contaminated Soil Around A Non-Standard Chromium Waste Landfill

Wang Li’ao, Yang Wei, Chen Dayong, Zeng Fantao, China


Heavy Metal Contamination Of Soil By The Leachate Of Damps

Recep Bakis, Gulgun Yilmaz, Hasan Arman, E. Aytug Ozsoy, Turkey


Distribution And Bioavailability Of Metals In Gasoline Contaminated Sites In Lagos, Nigeria

Adebola A. Oketola, Adebisi, Abimbola A., Nigeria


Green And Sustainable Remediation

Krishna R. Reddy, USA




Integrated Management


Solid Waste Management in the Arab Contries

Faraj EL Mabrouk, Farag A EL Mabrouk, Libya


Littering and Its Role in Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Case Study: The Czech Republic

Anita Zavodska, Libuse Benesova, USA/Czech Republic


Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste in the Czech Republic

Libuše Benešová, Anita Závodská, Marketa Dolezalova, Petra Hnatukova, Bohumil Cernik, Kotoulova Zdenka, Czech Republic


European Experiences Towards The Zero Landfill Targets. Integration Among Traditional Businesses, Existing Waste Facilities And New Technologies Can Trigger Environmental And Economic Benefits

Pietro Cella Mazzariol, Paolo Carollo, Jure Svetcic, Italy


Production Management Focused  On Sustainable Social Technologies in Amazon

Flávio De São Pedro Filho, Profa. Estela Pitwak Rossoni, Geni Aparecida Da Silva Multiplicadora Brazil




Use of Waste Materials 1


Field Performance Of Pervious Rubberized Concrete

Ashraf Ghaly, USA


Finding Benefits On Production Of Charcoal From Waste Construction Wood Treated With Citric Acid–Analysis Physico-Chemical Property Of Charcoal

Masafumi Tateda, Masaru Okura, Youngchul Kim, Japan


Experimental And Finite Element Analysis Of Geocell Reinforced Fly Ash Retaining Wall

B. Ram Rathan Lal, V.B.Deshmukh, J.N.Mandal, T. Mandal, J.J.Tank, B.Bhagat, R.Jadhav, India


Development Of Sustainable Concrete Using Marginal Materials

Dr. Radhakrishna, Dr. Renukadevi, G S Manjunath, Dr. B C Udayashankar, India


Test For Leaching Degradation Of Cement Hydration Products In Lo-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

Yu-Kuan Cheng, Wei-Hsing Huang, Taiwan (R.O.C)




Insulated Glass Ceramic From Tft-Lcd Waste Glass And Caf2 Sludge By Thermal Treatment

Chen-Shiuan Fan, Kung-Cheh Li, Taiwan (R.O.C)


Considerations Regarding Geotechnical Testing of Solid Waste Materials

Dorairaja Raghu, Swamy Basim, USA




Biological Treatment


Comparative Study on Indigenous and Exotic Earthworms During Integrated Waste Management Through Vermitechnology

Ankur Rajpal, Renu Bhargava, A.K.Chopra, India


Sensitizing Women Towards Eco-friendly Composting Technology

Chitra Prakash, V.P. Thanooja, India


Energy From Waste: Sugarcane Solid Residues Energy Use In Brazil

Walfrido Alonso Pippo, Carlos A. Luengo, Pietro Garzone, Giacinto Cornacchia, Brazil





Pollution And Waste Management Regulation In Developing Countries: Nigeria And Guyana Compared

Mr. Jerry U. Uhuo, Dr. Anita Závodská, Associate Nigeria/USA


Depletion Of Earth’s Natural Resources And Associated Environmental Damage

Ashraf Ghaly, USA




Industrial Wastes Management


Toxicity Of 245-3’4′-Pentachlorobiphenyl In Anaerobic Systems

Devrim Kaya, Ipek Imamoglu, F. Dilek Sanin, Turkey


Use Of Low-Grade Mgo To Stabilise Heavy Metals In Steel Electric Arc Furnace Waste Beste Cubukcuoglu, Sabeha Ouki, United Kingdom


Characteristics And Management Strategies Of Industrial Solid Waste In Chongqing, China

Huang Chuan, Wang Li’ao, Zhu Ying, Li Dong, China



Reuse Of Fishery Wastes For Chromium Removal From Wastewater

Massimiliano Fabbricino, Biagio Naviglio, Gelsomina Toratora, Italy


Use Of Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Fly Ash And Slag In Autoclaved Brick Zhiwei  Zhang, Jueshi Qian, Zhi Wang, Yingchun Wei, China


Environmental And Technological Performance Assessment Of Treatment Technologies Of Sediments Polluted By The PCB With Best Available Techniques

Mariana Meave, Valérie Laforest, Jacques Méhu, Mariana Meave, France




Landfill 2


Site Selection And Prioritizing Proper Landfill Sites For Hazardous Wastes In Fars Province, Iran

Nasser Talebbeydokhti, Ayoub Karimi Jashni, Saeed Ghaffari, Iran


Investigation Of The Influence Of Clay Thickness On Waste Disposal Damping Site’s Impermeability

Hayrullah Akyildiz, Hasan Arman, Turkey


Hydraulic Conductivity Of Bagasse Ash Treated Tropical Black Clay

Kolawole Osinubi, Thomas Ijimdiya, Nigeria


Experimental Study On Anaerobic Degradation Of Mbt Waste

Asif A. Siddiqui, W. Powrie, D. J. Richards, Asif A. Siddiqui, United Kingdom


Adsorption of Methane in Biochar-amended Landfill Cover Soil:

Preliminary Research Findings

Krishna R. Reddy, Dongbei Yue, Poupakyaghoubi, USA


An Improved Model To Predict Gas Generation From Landfills Based On Waste Composition, Rainfall And Ambient Temperatures

Richa Karanjekar, Melanie Sattler, Sahadat Hossain, Victoria Chen, USA


Predicting Methane Generation In A Landfill

Shoou-Yuh Chang, Linkel Boateng, USA


Satellite Remote Sensing Of Landfill Gas In Developing Countries

Samuel A. Vigil, USA







Ash Management


Effect of Leachate of a Dump on Nearby Sources of Water

Otoniel Buenrostro Delgado, Márquez-Benavides, L., Ruth Alfaro-Cuevas, Isabel Israde Alcantar, María Del Consuelo Hernandez Berriel, México


Potential Beneficial Uses of Water Treatment Sludge Incineration Ash in Hong Kong Kaimin Shih,, Yuanyuan Tang, Changzhong Liao, Yuanyuan Tang and Changzhong Liao, China


Experimental Studies On The Behavior Of Fly Ash-Soil Mixture Reinforced With Geofibre

Dr. Fareed Mahdi, Malik Shoeb Ahmad, India


Properties Evaluation Of Self-Consolidating Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash Cementitious Material

Ali Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza Shams, Mohsen Jahanshahi, Iran


Utilization of Fly Ash Mixed With Cement and Electroplating Waste Sludge for Highway Application

Malik Shoeb Ahmad, India


Impact Studies Of Fly-Ash Management As Carrier For Bio-Pesticides Formulation, Vipin Kumar, Avantika Chandra, Gurdeep Singh, India




Case Studies 1


Hope Never Gives Up Protection Of Environment In The Midst Of Human Conflict In Sri Lanka

Ajantha Perera Sri Lanka


Mathematical Model For Evaluating The Municipal Solid Waste Planning Capability Of Local Authorities In Thailand

Jareerat Sakulrat, Mr.Rotchanatch Darnsawasdi, Thailand





Strength-Deformation Properties of Florida’s Recycled Asphalt Pavement

Paul Cosentino, Edward H. Kalajian, Tomas Montemayor, Bruce Doig, David USA




Determination of the Natural Attenuation Process at a Disposal Site in the State of Mexico

Edgar Carlos García Maya, Ma. Guadalupe Macedo Miranda, Sonia Mireya Martínez Gallegos, Guillermo Pedro Morales Reyes, México


Adsorption Of Heavy Metals By Biosolids With Admixtures

Lakshika Goonewardena, Roger Wrigley, Robert Edis, Kithsiri Dassanayake, Australia


Comparison Of The Effects Of Organic Amendments On The Chemical, Physical And Microbial Properties Of Coal Fly As A Plant Growth Medium

Oxana Belyaeva, Richard Haynes, Australia


Temporal Analysis Of Microbial Biomass C And Enzyme Activities In Soils Amended With Municipal Waste Compost Under No-Tillage And Moldboard Plow Systems

I. Haller, E.G. López-de-Sa, P. Soler-Rovira, A. Polo, J.C. García-Gil, Spain



Environmental Non Governmental Organizations (Ngos) In Chennai – A Study Of Issues, Actions And Impacts

Reeni Samuel, V. Thanikachalam, USA


New Bioestimulants For Plants From Microbiological Biohydrolysis Of Cow Byproducts Mª Dolores Coll, Luisa Mª López, I. Garcia, Teresa Hernandez, Carlos Garcia, Spain


Estimation of Change in Methane Emission Rate by Analysis of Age-defined Wastes in a Landfill Site

Kazuei Ishii, Toru Furuichi, Hidetoshi Kamio, JAPAN


Study On Dissolution And Recovery Of Polystyrene Waste In Plant-Derived Oils

Ren-Bin Lin, Shin-Hung Chen, Shin-Min Shih, Taiwan


Aspects Of The Recovery Of Metals From Mixed MSW – Mechanical-Biological Treatment vs. Incineration

Ronald Gillner, Th. Pretz, Bastian Wens, Nico Schmalbein, Germany


Physical And Chemical Properties Of Wood Ash From Burning And Gasification Processes

Sari Kilpimaa, Toivo Kuokkanen, Ulla Lassi, Finland


The Effect Of Adding Different Type Of Ca On Emission Of Heavy Metal During Agglomeration/Defluidization Process In Fluidized Bed Incineration

Chiou-Liang Lin, Jing-Dong Chou, Ming-Chih Tsai, Taiwan



Applieds of Biomass Power Plants in Disposal of Electricity, Amin Amraei, Shahab Shafayyan, , Mohammad Amin Gholamzadeh, Farid Amraei, Iran

Economic Evaluation Of Bio-Gas And Bio-Methane From Animal Manure, Shahab Shafayyan, , Abas Ali Changalvai,  Amin Amraei, Mostafa Narimani, Iran




Workshop on The W2Plastic Project: Part 1


The W2Plastics Project Halfway Achievements

Francesco Di Maio, Bin Hu, Norbert Fraunholcz, Silvia Serranti, Giuseppe Bonifazi, The Netherlands


Investigation on Energy Density of Plastic Waste Materials

L. Costiuc, S.Patachia, L.Baltes, M.Tierean, Romania


Composition Determination Of The Romanian Municipal Plastics Wastes

Silvia Patachia, Alina Moldovan, Mircea Tierean, Liana Baltes, Romania


The Use Of SWIR Hyperspectral Imaging For Quality Control In The MDS-Based Recycling Process Of Polyolefins

Silvia Serranti, Aldo Gargiulo, Giuseppe Bonifazi, Italy


Development Of Inverse Magnetic Density Separation Of Polyolefin Mixtures

Bin Hu, Francesco Di Maio, Peter Rem, Guillaume Houzeaux, The Netherlands


Magnet Designs for Magnetic Density Separation of Polymers

Domenico Lahaye, Henk Polinder, Peter Rem, Delft University of Technology,

The Netherlands




Landfill Improvement


Improvement In Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Sites Of Indore And Ujjain Cities (Comparative Study)

Abdul Saleem Khan, S. M. Narulkar, India


An Integrative Approach For Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill Selection: A Case Study Of Oahu, Hawaii

Sukwan Jung, John Yanagida, Tomoaki Miura, Michael Robotham, Greg Bruland, James Moncur, USA


Application Of Shredded Tires As Drainage Material In Enhanced Leachate Recirculation (ELR) Landfill

Shahed Manzur, Dr. Sahadat Hossain, Vance Kemler, David Dugger, USA


Compatibility Of Compacted Abandoned Dumpsite Soils With Municipal Solid Waste Leachate

Kolawole Osinubi, Afeez Bello, Nigeria



In Situ Recirculation-Fenton Oxidation Treatments For Leachate From A Closed MSW Landfill

Xiaolan Zeng, Wenchuan Ding, Tengrui Long, Leilei Zhang,Chengbao Lin, China


Temporal And Spatial Distribution Of Humic Substances In Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Leachate

Dongbei Yue, Yinglong Guan, Guangxia Qi, China




Use of Waste Materials 2


Pretreatment And Effective Utilization Of Softwood Waste Material Using Steam Explosion With Super High Temperature And Pressure

Chkako Asada, Chizuru Sasaki, Yoshitoshi Nakamura, Japan


Engineering Characteristics Of Pond Ash For Embankment Construction

Bijayananda Mohanty, Sarvesh Chandra, Nihar Ranjan Patra, India


Triaxil Determination of Shear Strenght of Tire Chips-Sand-Geotextile Mixures Mahmoud Ghazavi, Javad Ghaffary, Iran


Scrap Tire Management System In Iran: Challenges And Insights

A. A. Towfigh, F. Ghavipanjeh, Iran




Case Studies 2


Using Life Cycle Assessment As A Tool For Analysing Household Waste In Dublin, Ireland

Anne Morrissey, Esben Andersen, Thomas H Christensen, Denmark


A Comparative Study Of Solid Waste Source Segregation In Tertiary Institution And Residential Areas In Nigeria

Dennis Iyeke Igbinomwanhia, Nefisat Jessica Alao, Nigeria


Municipal Solid Waste Management In Pakistan

Sardar Mohazzam, Mr. Obaid Ullah, Pakistan


Community Participation In Waste Management In Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal

Rabindra Kumar Rai, Nepal





Municipal Solid Waste Management Diagnosis Of Rapidly Growing Cities: The Case Of Mwanza City, Tanzania

Fredrick Salukele, Gabor Szanto, Shaaban Mgana, Joost Van Buuren, Wim H. Rulkens, Tanzania




Environmental Topics


Environmental Performance of an Innovative Waste Refinery Based on Enzymatic Treatment

Davde Tonini, Thomas Astrup, Denmark


The Climate Relevance Of Waste Management In Addis Ababa – Baseline And Potential Optimisation Approaches

Mike Speck, Michael Porzig, Manuel Trapp, Germany


Sustainable Environmental Management For Olive Mill Waste In Rural Areas

Mervat El-Hoz, Lebanon


Sustainability Assessment of Solid Waste Management

Rabia Batagarawa, John Williams, Jonathan Potts, Julia Brown, United Kingdom





Recovery of indium from waste-LCD by chemical extraction method

Satoshi Mizutani, Yoshinori Kanjo, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Japan


Studies for Reuse of Solid Waste Generated In Production Catalyst for Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (Fcc)

Marco Figueiredo, Wallace Souza, Jose Paulo Miguens, Brasil


Chemically Stabilised Biosolids As Compacted Landfill Liners

Lakshika Goonewardena, Roger Wrigley, Robert Edis, Kithsiri Dassanayake, Australia


Development of Geopolymers from Coal Bottom Ash by Alkaline Activation

Rozineide A. Antunes Boca Santa, Adriano Michael Bernardin, Humberto Gracher Riella, Brazil


Disposal of syringes by individuals with diabetes mellitus, in Ribeirão Preto of São Paulo, Brazil

Sílvia Carla da Silva André, Tatiane Bonametti Veiga, Ana Paula Milla dos Santos, Angela Maria Magosso Takayanagui, Brasil



Efficient Conversion Of Waste Wooden Chopsticks Into Biofuel

Chkako Asada, Chizuru Sasaki, Yoshitoshi Nakamura, Azusa Kita, Ai Asakawa, Japan


Influence of soil management and thermally-dry sewage sludge amendment on soil labile C pools, microbial biomass C and CO2 fluxes

J.C. Garcia-Gil, Isabel Haller,  E.G. Lopez-de-Sa, Spain




Policy, Economics and Regulations


Renewable Energy From Wastes: A Workforce Planning Case Study From Queensland

Dr Georgina Davis, Australia


E-Waste Management In Bangladesh

M. Habibur Rahman, Abdullah Al-Muyeed, Zuena Aziz, Bangladesh


Solid Waste Management In Ijebu Ode City, Ogun State, Nigeria

Taiwo Odumosu, Nigeria


Assessment Of State Composting Regulations In The United States

Nazli Yesiller, Sam Vigil, Jim Hanson, Professor USA


Factors Influencing The Formulation Of Emission Limit Values For Waste Incinerators In The EU

Paulina Ramirez-Monsalve, Aalborg Universitet, Denmark




Medical Wastes


Final Disposal Of Expired Arvs In Nigeria

Isa Iyortim, Kelechi Enweruzo-Amaefule, Ugbede-Ojo Abu, Kalada Greeen., Abimbola Sowande, Nigeria


Medical Waste Management Practices In Nigeria, The Case Of Lagos And Ibadan

Adebola A. Oketola, Ogundiran, Mary B., Adefolu, O.R, Mojeed, O.A., Itiveh, S., Nigeria




Waste Collection


The Effect Of Sodium Silicate And Pulp Density On The Physical Property Of Gelfill Mehrdad Kermani, Ferri Hassani, Michelle Nokken, Ike Isagon, Fimm Vale, Canada



The Price Of Private And Public Service In The Collection Of Household Waste: A Case-Study Of The Flemish Region Of Belgium

Xavier Gellynck, Ray Jacobsen, Belgium


Municipal Waste Management Status Of Dhaka City

Abdullah Al-Muyeed, Anik Talukder, Sanjiban Majumder, Anik Talukder, Sanjiban Majumder And Shariful Alam, Bangladesh




Research Advances 1


Biohythane Production From The Organic Fraction Of Municipal Solid Waste: Improving Existing Anaerobic Digestion  Plants

Cristina Cavinato, David Bolzonella, Francesco Fatone, Italy


Sudy Of Cellulose Derivatives Obtained From Sugarcane Straw

Adilson Roberto Gonçalves, Rafael Garcia Candido, Brazil


Production Of Phosphate – Rich Biofertiliser Using Vermicompost And Anaerobic Digestor Sludge

C.M.Narayanan, India


Microbial Enzyme Assay As A Surrogate Measure Of Soil Microbial Activity In Jharia Coal Field, India

Anshumali, Chitralekha Sengupta, G. Singh, India


Decentralized Treatment of Slaughter House Solid Waste and Its Economic Review in India

S. Jothi Venkatraman, S.Jayanthi, India




Case Studies 3


The Role Of Informal Sector In The Delivery Of Sustainable Waste Management Services In Kaduna  Metropolis,

Abdullahi, Y.A., Jiriko, K.G., Akunna, J.C., Nigeria


Tales Of Two Cities: Municipal Solid Waste Management In Singapore And Berlin, Germany

Dongqing Zhang, Soon Keat Tan, Richard, M. Gersberg, Singapore






Waste Generation and Composition


Iso 14001 Certification And The Influence On Solid Waste Generation Rates For Manufacturing Organizations In The US

Matthew J. Franchetti, USA




Waste Minimization


A Systems Approach To Achieving Zero Landfill Status And Case Study

Matthew J. Franchetti, USA


A Critical Review Of A Key Waste Strategy Initiative In England: Zero Waste Places

Paul Phillips, Roy Fairweather, Terry Tudor, UK


An Evaluation Of The Largest Resource Efficiency Club Programme In England (2005-2008)

Paul Phillips Prof., Roy Fairweather, UK




Research Advances 2


Solar Photocatalytic Degradation Of Reactive Yellow 81 And Reactive Violet 1 In Aqueous Solution Containing Semiconductor Oxides

A. Giwa, P. O. Nkeonye, K. A. Bello, E. G. Kolawole, A. M. F. Oliveira Campos, Nigeria




Use of Waste Materials 3


Utilization Of Bio-Medical Incineration Ash In Soil Improvement

Jawaid, Syed, India



Diagnosis and Control of Rice Straw Building Elements Degradation due to Fungal and Bacterial Infection

Gihan L.K.Garas, Mostafa E. Allam, Mohamed Abd El Kader, Egypt


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