Volume 45, 2019

Issue 4, November 2019

PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE POTENTIAL USE OF FLY ASH AS A VENTILATED IMPROVED PIT LATRINE ADDITIVE

Dylan Collings1,2, Roman Tandlich2*, Cyril S. Dube2, Phindile Madikizela2,

Nosiphiwe P. Ngqwala2, Mushtaque Ahmed3

1Rhodes University Biotechnology Innovation Centre, Rhodes University,

P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa

2Environmental Health and Biotechnology Research Group, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,

Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, Artillery Road, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140,

South Africa

3Department of Soils, Water and Agricultural Engineering, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences,

Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Tel 00-27-46-603-8825, Fax 00-27-46-603-7506

r.tandlich@ru.ac.za; roman.tandlich@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

 This study describes the results of a series of laboratory experiments on aimed at developing of a protocol for the use of fly ash as a pit additive in the ventilated improved pit latrines (VIPs) in South Africa. Model VIP vaults were prepared in the laboratory and filled with synthetic faecal sludge; and dosed with fly ash in amounts ranging from 5 to 20 % (w/w). The maximum leachable chemical oxygen demand (COD) accounted for 3.2 % of the total organic matter, while the maximum leachable ammonium accounted for 1.4 % of the leachable ammonium present in the synthetic faecal sludge. All phosphate in the synthetic faecal material was leachable. Mixing of the 20 % dose of fly ash into the synthetic faecal sludge resulted a minimum 98.9 % reduction (or about two log units) in the faecal coliform concentration after 28 days of incubation. As a result, addition of fly ash can decrease microbial threats to public and environmental health threats from the VIP faecal wastes, but can cause environmental contamination with phosphate. The fly ash dose and the duration of the faecal sludge treatment require further optimisation. Relationship between the chemical composition of the fly ash used as an additive to stabilise the VIP faecal sludge and the leaching of phosphorus from the sludge will also have to be investigated further.

Keywords: Improved sanitation, community of practice, faecal coliforms, leachable chemical components

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WASTE COOKING OIL MANAGEMENT AT THREE GASTRONOMIC ESTABLISHMENTS IN LAVRAS, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL: PROBLEMS, PROSPECTS AND SOLUTIONS

 Gabriela Rezende de Souza*1

André Geraldo Cornélio Ribeiro1

Sindel Luanda Fonseca Sales2

1Engineering Department, 2Chemistry Department

Federal University of Lavras (UFLA),

Mailbox 3037, 37200-000, Lavras-MG, Brazil

rezendesgabriela@gmail.com

 ABSTRACT

 The waste cooking oils (WCOs), when wrongly discarded, bring environmental damages, additionally to structural problems and financial losses if released in the sewage system. However, the correct management of this residue allows its reuse and recycling, representing economic gains, besides social and environmental benefits. There are several alternatives to recycling and reusing WCOs and the biodiesel production presents itself as one of the most important. Nevertheless, it is necessary to guarantee the residue quality in order to utilize its potential, as well as a coordinated management of WCO, promoting the correct processing and disposal of this waste. In this context, this article aims to propose an environmentally appropriate WCO onsite handling and collection in Lavras-MG, by evaluating the WCO management at three establishments in the city. The evaluation had taken into account the quantity of WCO generated, handling, storage and collection methods adopted, and the quality of the residue, by analyzing levels of acid, iodine and peroxide and saponification value. The results revealed the current management of the WCO, the actors involved in the management chain, the way the different frying and storage processes influence the WCO quality for reusing and recycling and possible alternatives to improve the management. The WCO management chain, composed of ACAMAR, G-Óleo, E1 and E2, is widespread and shows potential to transform the WCO into several other products, in addition to biodiesel and handmade soap. At long last to coordinate the correct WCO handling, collection, processing and disposal it is essential to guarantee the participation of the generators, collectors, and the government.

 Keywords: Management chain, waste cooking oil recycling, urban waste, reuse

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MUNICIPAL SOIL WASTE COMPOST AND BIOCHAR EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND WHEAT GRAIN YIELD

 Salahedin Moradi*a, Leyla Jahanbanb

 aDepartment of Agriculture, bDepartment of Agriculture,

Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697,Tehran, Iran

6341ms@gmail.com Tel: +989186852015

ABSTRACT

 Application of different biosoilds in agriculture is considered as an important strategy to promote soil quality and plant yield. In order to study the effects of municipal solid waste compost (MSW) [in 2% and 4% (w/w) levels] and biochar (BC) [in 0.2% and 0.8% (w/w) levels] on soil properties and wheat grain yield, this research was conducted as a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design. The results showed that in most cases the soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon, N, P and K increased affected by different treatments, especially in concurrent application of MSW and BC. The soil micronutrients concentration was significantly increased by biosolids, BC and MSW application. For micronutrients, co-application of BC and MSW was superior than applying them individually. The grain yield was significantly promoted by the treatments, especially under the co-application of MSW and BC treatments. Generally, although the concurrent application of the highest rate of BC (0.8%) and MSW (4%) might be suggested as an efficient procedure to promote the soil fertility and wheat grain yield, their levels of application for each plant needs to be carefully studied under field conditions.

Keywords: Compost, Biochar, Wheat, Micronutrients

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WASTE GENERATION INDICATORS IN BRAZILIAN CONSTRUCTION SITES

Diogo Henrique Fernandes da Paz1, Kalinny Patrícia Vaz Lafayette2, Maria do Carmo Sobral3

 1Federal University of Pernambuco

diogo.henriquepaz@gmail.com

2Pernambuco State University

klafayette@poli.br

3Federal University of Pernambuco

msobral@ufpe.br

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to perform a diagnosis of the Construction Waste (CW) generation at sites in the city of Recife, Brazil, and obtain indicators to improve waste management. This involved the collection of data through the establishment of partnerships with construction companies that build multifamily residential buildings in the region. To organize the information, a spreadsheet database was developed, containing the survey of the construction characteristics from each construction project, such as the phase, built area, total land area, demolition and excavation area, number of floors, execution time, among others. From this analysis, it was verified that the total CW generation increases as the built area increases. However, the generation rate has an inverse relationship, being higher for the projects with smaller built areas. It is therefore necessary to consider the size of the project in order to use the correct CW generation rate. The results obtained by the analysis of these 20 worksites indicate that new indicators of waste generation are required by construction phase and by size of the built area, in order to properly estimate how much CW was generated and the costs to manage it.

Keywords: Environmental management, construction waste, costs

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INTEGRATION OF PORT DREDGED SEDIMENTS

INTO THE PRODUCTION OF FIRED CLAY BRICKS

 Ikram Frar*, Houdaifa Bakkali, Mohammed Ammari, Laïla Ben Allal

 Research Team: Materials, Environment and Sustainable Development (MEDD),

University Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier,

BP 416–Tangier, Morocco

ikram.frar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Bricks manufactured, based on dredged sediments extracted from Tangier and Larache ports in Morocco were investigated. Chemical, physical, geotechnical, mineralogical and environmental characterizations studies of ports dredged sediments were performed. Partial substitution of natural clay by dredged sediments was achieved with different substitution rates by weight (20%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70%) to manufacture brick samples at the laboratory scale. The compressive strength was the factor determining the optimal substitution rate of the natural clay. Compressive strength values of fired bricks with different rates of sediments incorporated show that the manufactured bricks have mechanical characteristics relatively close to natural clay until 60% substitution for Larache port dredged sediment (SL) and until 50% for Tangier port dredged sediment (ST). The results in this study confirm that dredged sediments from the ports of Tangier and Larache can be used as an alternative raw materials resource for the manufacturing of fired bricks.

Keywords: Dredged sediments; natural clay; bricks; substitution; compressive strength

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WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE AMAZON AND THE CONCEPTUAL INNOVATION OF SUSTAINABILITY

Valéria Arenhardt*, GEITEC/UNIR/UNAERP/IFRO, Brazil

Flávio de São Pedro Filho, GEITEC/UNIR/CNPq, Brazil

Valdir Schalch, USP/UNAERP, Brazil

Samia Laise Manthey Benevides, GEITEC/UNIR/CNPq/PPGMAD, Brazil

Saiane Barros de Souza, PPGMAD/UNIR/IFRO, Brazil

valeria.arenhardt@ifro.edu.br

 ABSTRACT

 This study deals with the management of household waste in a municipal base in Brazil’s Amazon region that did not implement selective collection. The aim is to study waste management produced in households, focusing on the reduction for urban development through the conceptual innovation of sustainability. The specific goals of this project are: (1) to identify if the residents consider it important to properly dispose of household waste, (2) to assess how much they know about the selective collection and where household waste goes; (3) to propose conceptual innovation in managing solid residues and sustainability. It is an exploratory descriptive research, with the field study of mixed nature, presenting qualitative and quantitative results. The consulted population of the lower middle class was chosen by sampling. The proposal is to analyze the answers collected to identify the ability of individuals to break environmental paradigms guided by the awareness of actions and innovative behavior in the face of the problem studied and based on the U Theory, proposing concept innovations on global sustainability. The result shows the inadequate management of household solid waste because residents do not comply with the principles of sustainability. The analysis allows bringing the conceptual innovation of environmental, economic and social sustainability, breaking old concepts and proposing the shared management of household waste. The actions indicated in this research would enable entrepreneurs to optimize the environmental development allied to the social and economic sustainability in the Amazon. This work can benefit business owners, governments and society in general.

Keywords: Amazon, Management, Innovation, Waste, Sustainability

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REMOVAL OF SULPHATES FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE

USING TETRADECYTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE

MODIFIED DESILICATED FLY ASH

 Thabo Falayi

 Department of Civil Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524,

Johannesburg 2006, South Africa

Department of Chemical Engineering, Malawi University of Science and

Technology, P.O. Box 5196, Limbe, Blantyre, Malawi

tfalayi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

 Tetradecytrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA) was used to modify the surface properties of desilicated fly ash (DFA). The objective was to improve the removal of sulphates from acid mine drainage using the TDTMA modified DFA (TDTMA-DFA). A 20% addition of TDTMA to DFA produced the optimum sulphate adsorbent. A 4% (m/v) solid loading of TDTMA-DFA was capable of removing over 98% of sulphates from AMD after agitation at 250 rpm and 45°C for 180 mins although equilibrium was reached after 80 mins. The mechanism of removal was chemisorption and the sulphate loaded TDTMA-DFA was stable against further leaching. The research gives an opportunity for the modification of a solid waste material (DFA) into a useful adsorbent thereby allowing a waste material to treat another waste which then supports a circular economy in a waste management system.

Keywords: Desilicated fly ash; Tetradecytrimethylammonium bromide; sulphates; adsorption; Elovich kinetic; Adsorption isotherms

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DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL SAMPLES FROM SELECTED DUMPSITES IN NASARAWA, KOGI AND NIGER STATES, NIGERIA

 J.J. Musa1*, J.D. Bala2, H.I. Mustapha1, M.Y. Otache1, E.T. Musa3,

M.P. Akos1, Y.I. Yerima1, E.S. Daniel1

 1Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, 2Department of Microbiology

School of Life Sciences, Federal University of Technology,

P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

3Central Research Laboratory, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria

johnmusa@futminna.edu.ng, Tel: +2348036682747

ABSTRACT

 The growing dominance of urban environment with heavy metals through natural and anthropogenic depositions and the potentially adverse health implications following environmental contaminations have focused attention on the disposal of municipal and industrial wastes. This study employed analytical procedures to investigate the concentrations of chromium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminium at the municipal waste dump site of the study areas. Soil samples were randomly collected from different waste dumpsite across Nasarawa, Kogi, and Niger states and an undisturbed soil 100m away from the dumpsites was chosen as the control. From the result obtained, it was observed that the metals in all dumpsite types followed the order: Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>Cr>Al. Mn had the highest mean concentration which was recorded in Bida, Borgu and Minna in Niger State while Al was the least detected in all the dumpsites with the lowest mean concentrations (5.7±0.96) recorded in Borgu. Mean concentration of all the metals at the dumpsites was higher than at the control which means there is an anthropogenic contribution from the environment. The concentrations of the heavy metals were generally lower than their respective guideline values for the protection of human and environmental health. However, with prolong practice of dumping refuse at these sites; concentrations of the heavy metals may increase above the recommended limits. Therefore, we recommend that further research be carried out on the heavy metals concentration of the waste materials to identify those that are potential sources of soil contamination to suggest appropriate treatment and disposal methods.

 Keywords: Anthropogenic, Heavy Metals, Organic Carbon, Organic Matter, pH

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A THEORETICAL MECHANISM IN THE DEGRADATION OF

POLYOLEFIN PLASTIC WASTE USING PHYTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESS

 Koteswara Reddy1, Yarrakula Kiran2*

 1Department of Biotechnology, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation (Deemed to be University), Green Fields, Vaddeswaram-522502, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Centre for Disaster Mitigation and Management (CDMM), VIT University,

Vellore-632014, Tamilnadu, India

ABSTRACT

 The purpose of this study is to provide a theoretical mechanism during the degradation of polyolefin plastic waste using phytochemicals. Existing degradation (physical, chemical and biological) methods are ineffective, expensive and notably time consuming during the degradation of polyolefin plastics. During the phytochemical degradation process, initially, polyolefin plastic is oxidized and converted into the hydrophilic nature by photo-oxidation. Thereafter, phyto phenols can be used to cleave the main chains of polyolefin plastics, thereby, small molecular hydrocarbons are formed such as oligomers, monomers and dimers. During this process, primary products like all the reactive hydroperoxides and free radicals might be produced and lead to further chain cleavage via peroxide cross linkage. Besides, the consequences of plastic chain cleavage make the product apparently more susceptible to biodegradation. The phytochemical based degradation mechanism is useful for the researchers in the direction towards plastic hazards reduction and management on the earth’s environment.

 Keywords: Photo-oxidation, Phytochemicals, Biodegradation, Polyolefin

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ENHANCEMENT OF MAIZE BY-PRODUCTS

THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION:

IMPROVED FEED RESOURCE FOR RUMINANT PRODUCTION

 Bamigboye Funmilayo

 Department of Agricultural Sciences,

Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

familade@yahoo.com

bamigboyefo@abuad.edu.ng

ABSTRACT

 In Nigeria, maize by-products are abundantly available but not in use as feedstuff in livestock production due to preponderance high fibre composition. Treatment of maize by-products to enhance its utility in ruminant production was therefore investigated in the present study. Rumen liquor, urea and both were used to treat maize cob and maize straw. Chemical composition and in-vitro gas production analysis were carried out using standard procedures. Results showed that crude protein ranged from 2.7 (corn straw) to 13.1 % (rumen liquor and urea treated corn-cob), ash: 4.5–9 % in rumen liquor and urea treated corn-cob and rumen liquor treated corn-cob respectively. Insoluble but degradable fraction (b) ranged between 5.5 ml (untreated corn straw) and 37.0 ml (corn-cob + rumen liquor + urea). The rate of potential gas production of treated and untreated maize by-products ranged from 6.0 – 39.0 ml in untreated corn straw and corn-cob + rumen liquor + urea respectively. Metabolisable energy, organic matter digestibility and short chain fatty acid ranged from; 3.2 – 8.2 MJ/kg, 22.7 – 55.7 % and 0.2744 – 0.8720 µmol respectively. In conclusion, the use of rumen liquor or/and urea to treat maize by-products improved and bettered the nutritive composition. However, the use of both rumen liquor and urea was ranked best considering the parameters examined.

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MEASUREMENT AND QUANTIFICATION OF RESIDENTIAL SOLID WASTE IN A METROPOLITAN CITY OF A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: CASE STUDY IN FOUR SELECTED INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN DAR ES SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

 Mengiseny Kaseva 1*, Kris Wernstedt2, Jacob M. Kihila3

1Ardhi University, School of Environmental Science and Technology (SEST), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

2School of Public and International Affairs, Virginia Tech (US)

3Ardhi University, Institute of Human Settlements Studies (IHSS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

mengisenyk@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

 This study has employed multiple techniques, including subjective and objective approaches, to augment existing information and data on household waste generation, generation rates, composition and waste management perceptions in informal settlements. Waste weight, volume and composition data were obtained through one measurement study (n=80) and five surveys (n = 1,239). Additional information was obtained through physical observations and interviews. Results of this study revealed per-capita overall mean weight and volume to be 0.51 kg/day and 1.33 liters/day, respectively. Relatively higher per-capita daily waste generation rates were observed in smaller households, suggesting a positive dependence of municipal solid waste generation rate on both household income and size. Generation high points were on Mondays, signifying that accumulation of waste is more on Sundays perhaps because of shopping during weekends. Organic waste constituted the largest component (60.5% by weight), while e-waste constitute the least (0.4%). About 43% and 8% of the population have to store the waste for two to three weeks and for more than a month, respectively, before delivery for collection by the local government and or the private sector. The study established existence of both extreme satisfaction and dissatisfaction with waste collection and significance of collection problems in the informal settlements.

Keywords: Solid Wastes, Waste Quantification, Management perceptions

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PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF SOLIDIFYING MECHANISM FOR MIXED SOLIDIFICATION MATERIAL WITH SILICA ADMIXTURE AND BLAST FURNACE SLAG

 Shinya Inazumi 1*, Sutasinee Intui 2,Takashi Shinsaka 3, Ryo Hashimoto 4

 1Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto, Tokyo 135-8548, Japan

Tel: +81 3 5859 8360; Fax: +81 3 5859 9204

inazumi@shibaura-it.ac.jp

 2Major of Civil Engineering Technology, Valaya-Alongkorn Rajabhat University, Thailand

3Sanshin Corporation, Japan

4Doboku Chishitsu Co., Ltd., Japan

ABSTRACT

In past studies, a powdery silica-based admixture was developed. It was obtained by applying the heat treatment to inorganic waste, such as waste glass and fly ash containing a large amount of silica. The silica-based admixture has also been recognized as an effective solidifying material when it is mixed with blast furnace slag. The colloidal silica and calcium silicate hydrates (CSHs) produced in the process exhibit not only a higher mechanical strength than cement-based solidification material, but also excellent properties such as the expectation of a delayed effect of the solidification time. Therefore, it is considered to be applicable to ground improvement works. In this study, in order to investigate the usefulness of a silica admixture and blast furnace slag solidifying material and the solidifying mechanism by means of a solidification material, an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS analysis), a scanning electron microscope observation (SEM observation) and an X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD analysis) were implemented to examine soils improved by the solidification material.

Keywords: Solidification material, silica admixture, blast furnace slag, solidifying mechanism, ground improvement

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APPLICATION OF ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS DECISION MODEL FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY IN YAOUNDÉ, CAMEROON

Sotamenou Joel1, Molua Ernest L.2 and Akamin Ajapnwa2*

1Department of Public Economy, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Yaounde II,

P.O. Box 1365 Yaoundé, Cameroon

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine,

University of Buea, P.O. Box 63 Buea, Cameroon

Tel: (+237) 673 296 701; Fax: (+237) 243 32 22 72

ABSTRACT

Municipal solid waste management is one of the global challenges that the world is facing today as countries make strides towards the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this paper is to identify the most appropriate municipal solid waste management strategy in Yaoundé. The tool used in this study is the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), one of the multi-criteria decision-making techniques. Based on the synthesis of the decision/policy makers’ judgements elicited, the Sustainable Development and Waste Service Quality criteria are identified as the priority objectives that should be applied for the municipal solid waste management strategy in Yaoundé, meanwhile the alternatives Pre-collection and Selective Collection are suitable actions to be integrated into the current municipal solid waste management strategy in Yaoundé.

Keywords: Municipal solid waste, Analytical hierarchy process, Decision makers, Multi-criteria decision model

Issue 3, August 2019

EFFECTS OF SOURCE SEPARATION EDUCATION ON SOLID WASTE REDUCTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

(A CASE STUDY: ARDABIL, IRAN)

Somayeh Hemmati11, Ebrahim Fataei*2,

Ali Akbar Imani3

 

1Graduate of M.Sc., Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

2Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

3Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture,Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran 

ebfataei@iauardabil.ac.ir & ebfataei@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT 

The aim of the present study was to create a source separation and waste reduction culture in Ardabil city in a randomized systematic way. The present semi-experimental study was conducted in two regions of Ardabil city. The number of sample in each region was 100 (50 as control, 50 as case population). In order to determine the effect of the profile of households in regions 1 and 2 and the effect of training on the amount of produced waste and the increase of awareness on source waste separation, two-step sampling, before and after training, was conducted in both groups. Beside a questionnaire also was completed before and after training. The results showed the statistically significant relationship between the income and reduction of produced waste in region 1 and 2. In the case group, level of awareness in regions 1 and 2 was changed from low-medium (first step) to medium-high (second step). Also, amount of produced waste was reduced in second steps in the case group. This result indicates the effect of training as an intervention factor, on waste management. Therefore, the desirable education system should be selected according to the status of society and the cultural, social, and economic conditions of each region and it is advisable to use specialized staff with health and environmental views to train citizens in order to source waste separation and waste management.

Keywords: Waste management, Public participation, training, Recovery, source reduction

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PROPOSAL OF AN INTEGRATED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES FOR SMALL MUNICIPALITIES

 

Diogo Appel Colvero*1,2, Ana Paula Duarte Gomes1, Luís António da Cruz Tarelho1,

Manuel Arlindo Amador de Matos1, José Carlos Martins Ramalho3

 

1Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

2Researcher Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq),

File No. 207172/2014-5

3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

 

diogocolvero@ua.pt

ABSTRACT

 

Most Brazilian municipalities are small, i.e., with less than 50,000 inhabitants. In the State of Goiás, for example, 91% of the municipalities are small. Of these, only 4% have their municipal solid waste (MSW) disposed in authorized landfills. Thus, the present study aimed to propose a municipal solid waste management facility (MSWMF) shared between two small municipalities of the microregion of Chapada dos Veadeiros, in Northeast Goiás. The reason for selecting this microregion is that it is composed only of small municipalities that use waste dumps for the disposal of their MSW. For this purpose, the areas subject to approval or restricted for the installation of a MSWMF were identified with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). Also, the host municipality (HM) of the MSWMF proposed for Campos Belos and Monte Alegre de Goiás was defined with the use of mass geometry methodology. According to the results obtained, 59% of the territories of these two municipalities that will integrate the proposed MSWMF are restricted for the installation of landfills, and Monte Alegre de Goiás was selected to host the landfill.

Keywords: Municipal solid waste; shared facilities; small municipalities; mass centre; Goiás

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THE STUDY OF QUANTITY CHANGE AND COMPOSITION VARIATIONS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN SAREYN AS A TOURISTIC CITY TO IMPROVE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

  

 

Rouhullah Dehghani1, Morteza Aalighadri2, Gholam Reza Mostafaii1,

Gholamreza Hoseindoost 1, Seyedmahdi Takhtfiroozeh3, Behrouz Parhizkar1*

 

1Social Determinants of Health (SDH) Research Center and Department of Environment Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

2Assistant, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health,

Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardebil, Iran

3Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Iran

 

behrouz_eh2003@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

 

Background and Objectives. Investigating the amount and composition of municipal solid waste components, as an essential information, is required to design, operate and optimize the municipal solid waste management systems. The ultimate goal of this research is to explore the quantity change and physical variations of Sareyn municipal solid waste.

Materials and Methods: This study was descriptive-cross sectional, conducted. Sampling was simple random and physical analysis was conducted according to the ASTM standard of MSW. Total of 28 samples were taken from the trucks brought to the landfill site.

Results: The average amount of MSW production in Sareyn is 19.1 tons each day while the highest amount in summer is 35.1 and the lowest in winter is 10.46. The density of Sareyn MSW in the autumn is in the highest value and in the summer is in the lowest value equal to 386.1 and 349.1 kg / m3 respectively. The putrescible materials; 65.66 percent, have the highest amount, and the rest of the components consisting of plastics, rubbish and trash, paper and paperboard, wood, glass, textiles and metals, respectively.

Conclusion: According to the conditions of Sareyn touristic city and in order to provide the required health care, it is necessary to review and plan a proper Municipal Solid Waste Management System, increase the number of collections of MSW during peak periods, locate a new place for landfill, and educate the citizens about the waste reduction and waste separation at the source.

Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste, MSW Composition, Sareyn, Ardebil
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EXPLORATION OF BIODRYING PROCESS FOR MIXED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

 

Asha P. Tom, M.Tech, Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Division

School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology

Kochi-682022, Kerala, India

Renu Pawels*, Ph.D., Professor, Civil Engineering Division, School of Engineering,

Cochin University of Science and Technology

Kochi- 682022, Kerala, India

Ajit Haridas, Ph.D., Chief Scientist, Environmental Technology Division,

National Institute of Interdisciplinary Science and Technology

Thiruvananthapuram, 695018, Kerala, India

*Tel: 09446556494

renupawels@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

 

The exploitation of self-heating nature of municipal solid waste for moisture reduction, through convective evaporation reaction called ‘Biodrying Process’ is promising for converting municipal solid waste with high moisture content in to a renewable energy substrate. The simultaneous regulation of air flow rate and reactor feed volume in the pilot scale reactor system has brought about a significant change in the spatial and temporal distribution of self heating reaction. The constant volumetric air flow rate of 40 L/m and initial filled height of reactor matrix was 1.65 m have been maintained in the first experiment, while the air flow rate has been doubled to of 80 L/m and the filled height of reactor matrix was raised to 2.0 m in the second experiment. Weight reduction of 29.6 % and moisture loss of 24.6 % has been achieved at the end of 11 days of reaction in the first study. A considerable improvement in biodrying process has been observed in the second experiment with a weight reduction of 40.7 % and moisture loss of 38.8 % achieved after 11 days of reaction. The accelerated evaporative cooling mechanism observed in the second experiment has found to improve the biodrying process efficiency.

Keywords: Mixed municipal solid waste; Biodrying; Air flow rate; Self Heating; Evaporation; Moisture content

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EXPLORATION OF THE BIOETHANOL YIELD

OF SINGLE AND MULTI-SUBSTRATE BIOMASS

FROM CASSAVA PROCESSING WASTES

 

D.O. Bolade, G.R.E.E. Ana*, S.A. Lateef, A.A. Sokan-Adeaga 

 

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health,

College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

 

Tel: +234-8037-146436

agree2000@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

 

Cassava processing generates large quantities of wastes which contribute significantly to environmental pollution. These wastes are abundant and inexpensive feedstock for bioethanol production that are available all year round in every region in Nigeria. Despite their wide availability, optimal generation of bioethanol from these wastes has not been achieved. This study explored the bioethanol yielding potential of single and multi-substrates biomass from cassava processing wastes. Physicochemical characterization of the cassava processing wastes viz: cassava peels (Cp), cassava pulp (Cpu) and cassava wastewater (Cw) revealed the followings: low pH, cyanide, high total organic carbon and organic matter; low total nitrogen and phosphorus content. Among the single substrates, cassava peels (Cp) gave the highest glucose yield (GY), (48.04 mg/g) and total reducing sugars (TRS), (103.44 mg/g) respectively; while the combination of cassava peel, pulp (Cpu) and wastewater (Cw) (CpCpuCw) gave the highest GY (61.67±0.03mg/g) and TRS (111.36±0.04mg/g) among the multi-substrates. The ethanol yield obtained from the substrates at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours of fermentation were: Cp (337.5m3/kg, 354.0m3/kg and 348.6m3/kg), Cpu (249.4m3/kg, 270.6m3/kg and 264.6m3/kg), Cw (86.2m3/kg, 109.2m3/kg and 109.0m3/kg), CpCpu (352.3m3/kg, 386.9m3/kg and 381.5m3/kg), CpCw(339.0m3/kg, 370.6m3/kg and 359.4m3/kg), CpuCw (267.9m3/kg, 279.5m3/kg and 271.2m3/kg), and CpCpuCw (408.7m3/kg, 427.5m3/kg and 410.6m3/kg ) respectively. The study revealed that the combination of the three wastes (CpCpuCw) produced the highest GY/TRS and yield of bioethanol among the substrates, while the maximum ethanol yield was obtained at 48 hours of fermentation. Hence bioethanol production from multi-substrates biomass of cassava processing wastes should be fully explored.

Keywords: Bioethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cassava processing wastes, Acid hydrolysis, Fermentation

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PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING WASTE DISPOSAL BEHAVIOUR AMONG RESIDENTS IN YORUBA SPEAKING COMMUNITIES OF SOUTH-WESTERN, NIGERIA

 

Ilevbare Femi Monday*, Idemudia Erhabor Sunday

 Faculty of Humanities, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), South Africa

 Phone: +27782766476, femilevbare@oauife.edu.ng , 30902215@nwu.ac.za

ABSTRACT

 

The present study examined the influence of locus of control, environmental attitude and environmental self-efficacy on waste disposal behaviour. The study used primary data. The study population comprised residents in Ife Central, Ibadan Northwest and Lagos Mainland Local Government Areas (LGAs) in South-western, Nigeria. This study sample consisted of 1200 residents comprising 687 males and 513 females selected using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Their ages ranged between 15 to 76 years with a mean average age of 24.49 years (SD = 8.51). Data were collected using the Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), Locus of Control Scale (LOCS), Environmental Attitude Scale (EAS), Environmental Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES, and Waste Disposal Behaviour Scale (WDBS)). The results showed that there was a significant influence of locus of control on waste disposal behaviour (F= 6.20, p < 0.05). The results suggest that there was a significant influence of environmental attitude on waste disposal behaviour (F= 5.34, p < 0.05). They also showed a significant influence of environmental self-efficacy on waste disposal behaviour (F = 21.96, p < 0.05). The study concluded that stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate information from findings to design behavioural intervention that will improve desirable waste management practices. Implications were discussed for environmental practice and policy.

Keywords: Waste disposal behaviour, Locus of control, Environmental Attitude, Self-Efficacy, Yoruba speaking communities

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WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE AMAZON AND THE CONCEPTUAL INNOVATION OF SUSTAINABILITY

 

Valéria Arenhardt*, GEITEC/UNIR/UNAERP/IFRO, Brazil

Flávio de São Pedro Filho, GEITEC/UNIR/CNPq, Brazil

Valdir Schalch, USP/UNAERP, Brazil

Samia Laise Manthey Benevides, GEITEC/UNIR/CNPq/PPGMAD, Brazil

Saiane Barros de Souza, PPGMAD/UNIR/IFRO, Brazil

valeria.arenhardt@ifro.edu.br

 

ABSTRACT

 

This study deals with the management of household waste in a municipal base in Brazil’s Amazon region that did not implement selective collection. The aim is to study waste management produced in households, focusing on the reduction for urban development through the conceptual innovation of sustainability. The specific goals of this project are: (1) to identify if the residents consider it important to properly dispose of household waste, (2) to assess how much they know about the selective collection and where household waste goes; (3) to propose conceptual innovation in managing solid residues and sustainability. It is an exploratory descriptive research, with the field study of mixed nature, presenting qualitative and quantitative results. The consulted population of the lower middle class was chosen by sampling. The proposal is to analyze the answers collected to identify the ability of individuals to break environmental paradigms guided by the awareness of actions and innovative behavior in the face of the problem studied and based on the U Theory, proposing concept innovations on global sustainability. The result shows the inadequate management of household solid waste because residents do not comply with the principles of sustainability. The analysis allows bringing the conceptual innovation of environmental, economic and social sustainability, breaking old concepts and proposing the shared management of household waste. The actions indicated in this research would enable entrepreneurs to optimize the environmental development allied to the social and economic sustainability in the Amazon. This work can benefit business owners, governments and society in general.

Keywords: Amazon, Management, Innovation, Waste, Sustainability

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EMISSION PROFILES OF MAJOR GASEOUS POLLUTANTS FROM UNMODIFIED AND PAPER AND STARCH MODIFIED BRIQUETTES MADE FROM AGRO-DERIVED WASTES

 

Victor T. Fabunmia, Godson R. Anaa, Gilbert U. Adieb*

 

aDepartment of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health,

College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

bDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Tel: +2348059998665, gildie1975@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

 

Energy use in rural areas in Nigeria is largely dependent on firewood and other biomass sources. Biomass fuel is domestically used daily for cooking and lighting. Continuous use of this energy resource has negative impact on both the environment and human health, especially on users. Many pulmonary problems have been associated with continuous exposure to smoke arising from burning of these materials. The use of briquetting is a more sustainable alternative to raw burning of biomass as briquettes burn with little or no smoke. However, there is scarcity of data on the emission profiles of major gaseous pollutants arising from many biomass briquettes. This study therefore, investigated the emission profiles of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) from the combustion of unmodified as well as starch and paper modified briquettes made from four commonly used agro-based wastes namely, wood (control), sawdust (SD), rice husk (RH), coconut shell (CS) and corncob (CC). The gaseous pollutants emitted from combusting 0.5kg of each briquette were measured using appropriate devices. The mean concentrations (ppm) of gaseous emissions and particulates from all briquettes ranged as follows: CO: 35.4 – 79.0, CO2: 500 – 852, NO2: 0.09-0.50 and SO2: bdl – 2.13. All briquettes indicated higher PM2.5 concentrations than control (5190 µg/m3) except SD-paper modified briquettes (3305 µg/m3). CC-paper modified briquettes and RH-starch modified briquettes showed highest concentrations of 21003µg/m3 and 16362µg/m3, respectively. CS-paper modified briquettes emitted the least concentration of PM2.5. This suggests it could be considered as the safest and most ecofriendly of the briquette types.

Keywords: Briquettes, Agro waste, Emission profile, Biomass combustion, Energy

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ASSESSMENT OF CLINICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN SELECTED PRIMARY HEALTHCARE CENTRES IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

 

James O. Akanmu*, Oladayo T. Ogunyomi

 

Civil & Environmental Engineering Department

University of Lagos, Akoka

Lagos, Nigeria

joakanmu@yahoo.com, jakanmu@unilag.edu.ng

ABSTRACT

 

This paper investigates clinical waste management in five selected primary health centres in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. The research used quantitative and qualitative techniques to evaluate data on clinical waste sources, types, rate of generation, collection and transportation and disposal at the health centres. The average generation rate of clinical waste generated was found to be 6.7kg/day, 20.3kg/day and 56.4kg/day at Adeniyi Jones, Ajuwon and Aregbesola primary health centres respectively while average daily waste generated per patient were found to be 0.11kg/patient/day, 0.20kg/patient/day, 0.26kg/patient/day, 0.45kg/patient/day and 0.69kg/patient/day at Ikeja Phc, Adeniyi Jones Phc, Ajuwon Phc, Ikosi-Ketu Phc and Aregbesola Phc respectively. Segregations of waste at generation source were properly done however, sometimes; they were haphazardly thrown into a common dustbin at the point of transporting to the disposal site. The paper concludes that the collection and transportation of the wastes are fairly effective and required improvement through training of the personnel and regular collection of wastes generated to avoid infections and outbreak of epidemics.

Keywords: Clinical, generation rate, primary health centre, management

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METAL LEACHING EFFICIENCY FROM WASTE PRINTED

 

Zhenfeng Xiong1,2, Ying Huang1,2,*, Kemei Zhou3, Dong Zhang1,2, Juan Bao3, Zifei Sun1,2

 

1Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education,

Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China

2Department od Environmental Science and Technology,

School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China

3Nanjing Water Affairs Group Limited, Nanjing 211189, China

huangying@seu.edu.cn

ABSTRACT

 

Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) from personal computers were ground and subjected to a two-step leaching process using two inorganic acids (nitric acid and aqua regia) to leach metals. Three kinds of samples were used: the whole WPCB, the golden finger part, and the WPCB excluding the golden finger. Leaching efficiencies of metals from these samples for different nitric acid concentrations (followed by aqua regia) were evaluated to identify the best concentration of nitric acid. The extracted Au concentration from the golden finger was 5.5 times of that from the whole WPCB board. Metals that compete with Au, such as Ni and Fe, have lower mass fractions in the whole WPCB board compared to those in the golden finger. However, Cu comprises a higher proportion in the golden finger. Au can be effectively separated from most other metals by initially leaching the ground WPCB with 5M nitric acid, followed by leaching with aqua regia. Considering the high leaching proportion of Au, it is advantageous to leach Au and base metals separately from the golden finger and from WPCB excluding the golden finger.

Keywords: Leaching; golden finger; precious metals; electronic waste; inorganic acid

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APPLICABILITY OF PAIRED EXTRACTION AND INJECTION WELLS FOR DETECTING CONTAMINANTS RELEASED FROM LANDFILLS

 

Paul F. Hudak

 

Department of Geography and the Environment

University of North Texas

1155 Union Circle #305279

Denton, Texas 76203-5017

hudak@unt.edu

ABSTRACT

 

Computer simulations tested the capability of an extraction and injection well pumping at low volumetric rates to detect contaminated groundwater in an unconfined aquifer beneath a hypothetical landfill. The wells occupied a line oriented perpendicular to groundwater flow and located downgradient of the landfill. They pumped at equal rates, but in opposite directions (extraction or injection). Through an iterative process, a mass transport model identified the lowest pumping rates and corresponding well locations necessary to detect plumes of contaminated groundwater originating from leaks within the footprint of the landfill. A plume was considered detected if it passed through the extraction well prior to reaching a downgradient buffer zone boundary. The most efficient well pair discharged +/- 1.7 m3/d and occupied a line located 12 m downgradient of the landfill, or 24 percent of the distance from the landfill’s downgradient corner to the buffer zone boundary. The extraction well was near the most downgradient edge of the landfill, and the injection well was outside the cross gradient corner of the landfill farthest from the extraction well. In contrast, six collinear conventional (non-pumping) wells were necessary to detect contaminant plumes emerging from the landfill. Results of this study suggest that low-discharge extraction and injection wells may be an effective contaminant detection strategy at some waste storage facilities.

Keywords: Groundwater monitoring; landfill; injection well; extraction well

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RECYCLING OF WASTE COMPACT DISCS IN CONCRETE MIX: LAB INVESTIGATIONS AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS MODELING

 

Abeer I. Alwareda, Ali J. Jaeelb, Zainab Z. Ismaila*

 

aDepartment of Environmental Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

bDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq

zismail9@gmail.com;zismail3@gatech.edu; Phone: +9647709023240

ABSTRACT

 

This study aimed to investigate the incorporation of recycled waste compact discs (WCDs) powder in concrete mixes to replace the fine aggregate by 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Compared to the reference concrete mix, results revealed that using WCDs powder in concrete mixes improved the workability and the dry density. The results demonstrated that the compressive, flexural, and split tensile strengths values for the WCDs-modified concrete mixes showed tendency to increase above the reference mix. However, at 28 days curing age, the strengths values for WCDs-modified concrete mixes were comparable to those for the reference mix. The leaching test revealed that none of the WCDs constituents was detected in the leachant after 180 days. The findings of this study indicated a sustainable alternative for diminution the effects on the environment posed by waste CDs. Significant agreement between experimental results and those predicted by the artificial neural networks (ANN) modeling was observed.

Keywords: Green concrete, Sustainability, Compact discs, Fine aggregate, Recycling, ANN
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REMEDIATION OF DUMPSITE LEACHATE CONTAMINANTS BY COAGULATION AND COMPLEXATION

 

A.M. Taiwo1*, A. Bello1, A.T. Towolawi1, J.A. Oyedepo1, Y.O. Khaniabadi2

 

1Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology,

Federal University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Care System of Karoon,

Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

taiwoam@funaab.edu.ng; taiwoademat@gmail.com, +2348034898675

ABSTRACT

 

Leachate is a major threat to groundwater quality and ecosystem. The present study adopted four selected coagulants (inorganic: Al2(SO4)3 [Alum], FeCl3, FeSO4; biological: Moringa oleifera) and a complexing agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA) to remediate leachates collected from two dumpsites in Abeokuta. The leachate samples were subjected to chemical and heavy metal analyses using the American Public Health Association (APHA) standard method. The data obtained were evaluated for simple descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) using SPSS for Windows. The results indicated that except for Fe and Ni, metal values in both raw and treated leachates were generally higher than the permissible standard of the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). The study revealed that despite treatment, the values of metals in treated leachates were still issues of environmental concerns. The reduction data revealed substantial removal of EC and TDS (100%), Cl (87-95 %) and SO42- (60-84%) in leachates. The present study also revealed that each coagulant has varied affinity for removal of different parameters in the leachate. Among the coagulants, Moringa oleifera showed the highest % removal efficiency for Cd (57-63%) and Ni (57-98%), while EDTA showed the lowest removing ability for Cd (2-6%). All the remediating agents effectively reduced the chemical contaminants in leachate samples to appreciate levels.

Keywords: Coagulants, EDTA, Leachate, dumpsite, chemical parameters, remediation
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Issue 2, May 2019

NON-ISOTHERMAL MODEL-FREE AND MODEL-FITTING KINETICS OF TYRE CRUMB PYROLYSIS 

Peter Tumwet Cherop*, Doctoral Student

Sammy Lewis Kiambi, Senior Lecturer, Department of Chemical Engineering

Paul Musonge, Professor of Chemical Engineering 

Department of Chemical Engineering, Durban University of Technology

P.O. Box 1334, Durban 4000, South Africa

pcherop2@gmail.com; 21648822@dut4life.ac.za

 

ABSTRACT

 

The kinetics of tyre crumb pyrolysis were established by applying three different models to thermogravimetric data. The thermogravimetric (TG) experiments were carried out in a nitrogen environment and a temperature range of 20°C to 600°C at heating rates of 2, 5, 10, and 20°C min-1. The models used to determine the activation energy (Ea) were Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), while Coats-Redfern (CR) model aided in determining the pre-exponential factor. The thermal decomposition started at an average temperature of about 285°C and was complete at 482°C for the four heating rates. Results indicate that the mass losses become greater with increase in heating rates. The mean Ea value obtained from both FWO and KAS models were similar (ca. 207 kJ mol-1) while the pre-exponential factor value was 3.62 × 107 min-1. Surface fitting was used to establish the relationship among the conversion degrees, Ea and pre-exponential factors. The data obtained from this study is key to the optimisation of industrial scale scrap tyre pyrolysis units.

Keywords: Pyrolysis, Kinetics, Tyre crumb, Thermogravimetry, Non-isothermal

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FLOW AND STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF MASONRY CEMENT MORTAR CONTAINING HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH

Balamohan Balakrishnan*, Mohammad Ismail, Nur Hafizah A. Khalid

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,

81310,UTM Johor Bahru, Johor Malaysia

b_balamohan@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

 

Masonry mortar is one of the mostly used building materials in construction industry; as nearly all walls made with bricks are finished with mortar. This mortar is generally made with cement and sand. Conventionally masonry mortar with fly ash are often made with Ordinary Portland Cement. In this study, mortar mixes were made by replacing the masonry cement up to 50% of fly ash with an increment of its content by 10%. Six mortar mixes with 1:4 volumetric cement-to-aggregate ratios using natural sand were then tested to obtain the flow and strength properties. The results found that the masonry mortars incorporating with fly ash had superior properties as compared to the mortar without ash content (control specimen). The addition of fly ash increases the flow, particularly when the replacement content was above 40%. Mortar with high volume fly ash has also shown to attain a comparable strength with that of the control mix. Considering a better workability and acceptable strength properties, the results demonstrated that high volume replacement of fly ash is a viable alternative for producing environmental friendly masonry cement mortar.

Keywords:  Masonry mortar; masonry cement; high volume fly ash; flow; strength; water retention; air content

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INFLUENCE OF THE LEACHING TESTS ON THE RELEASE OF HEAVY METALS FROM CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS OBTAINED BY THE SOLIDIFICATION OF PETROLEUM SLUDGE WASTES

 Bellachea, R. Cherifb, K. Moussaceba*, A. Aït-Mokhtarb

 

aMaterials Technology and Process Engineering Laboratory (LTMGP), Faculty of Technology,

University A/MIRA Bejaia, Targa-Ouzemour Road, 06000 Bejaia, Algeria

bLaSIE UMR CNRS 7356, Université de La Rochelle,

Av. M. Crépeau F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 1, France

articlesmoussaceb@yahoo.fr

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the influence of the leaching conditions on the release of heavy metals, namely lead, zinc iron and copper, from a cementitious material obtained by the solidification of petroleum sludge wastes. Four types of CEM-I-42.5 N based-mortars incorporating.) Petroleum wastes are tested. First, in order to characterize the waste itself, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX) tests were performed. Secondly, to evaluate the influence of leaching conditions on the release of heavy metals contained in the Stabilized / solidified materials tested, the acid neutralization capacity (ANC), the pore water (PW) and Monolith leaching tests (MLT) were carried out. Leaching tests (ANC, PW and MLT) have shown a low metal leachability. In fact, the lowest released amount was observed for the monolith leaching test (MLT). It was found also that the initial and final setting times increase and the mechanical strength decreases (at 7 days and 28 days age) as the masse percent replacement of cement by petroleum wastes increases.

Keywords: Sludge waste, heavy metals, Stabilization, solidification, cementitious materials

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RATIONALIZATION OF VERMICOMPOSTING PARAMETERS OF LIVESTOCK AND FOOD WASTES

 

Raghul, K. R. Pradeep, Karthik Chidambaram, R. Krishna Prasad* 

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

Center of Excellence in Advanced Materials & Green Technologies

Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India

 

Phone: +91-422-268500; Fax: +91-422-2656274

r_krishnaprasad@cb.amrita.edu

ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of the research is to develop a consortium of Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae earthworm species which were used in vermicomposting of food wastes to produce nutrient rich vermicompost. The method includes the study of process parameters affecting vermicomposting such as temperature, ash, pH and moisture variation to analyze the change in properties during vemicompost formation. The macronutrient composition obtained from vermicompost consists of Nitrogen (0.42%), Phosphorous (0.18%) and Potassium (0.37%). The micronutrients such as Zinc, Copper and Iron in vermicompost were estimated. The model equations for various macronutrients based on levels of quantity of cow dung, food waste and earthworms used were developed. The addition of cow dung, food waste and earthworms has positive effect on Nitrogen and Phosphorous nutrient availability in vermicompost as observed from regression models developed. The temperature range of 15-30°C is ideal for growth of earthworm species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of vermicompost was used to analyze the changes in functional groups during vermicomposting process. The valuable organic matter once broken down by earthworms can be mixed with soil to make it rich in nutrients which provides practical value to the vermicompost products produced.

Keywords: Earthworm species; Vermicompost; Process parameters; Cow dung; Food waste

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ONE-AT-A-TIME SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF A BIOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE MASS FRACTION IN AN AEROBIC LYSIMETER

 

Ackmez Mudhoo1,*, Romeela Mohee2, Bhola R. Gurjar3

 

1Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,

University of Mauritius, Réduit 80837, Mauritius

2University of Mauritius, Réduit 80837, Mauritius

3Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247 667, India

Phone: +2304037772; Fax: +2304657144

a.mudhoo@uom.ac.mu

 

ABSTRACT

 

A zero-order model was worked out to predict and analyze the time variation of carbon dioxide mass fraction in an aerated bioreactor landfill lysimeter. This model embodies substrates specific utilization and microbial growth kinetics instead of the typical Monod’s kinetics. Substrates found in biodegradable substrates have been grouped as ‘slowly degradable’, ‘moderately degradable’ and ‘rapidly degradables’. Biodegradation–induced settlement following mechanical compression has also been considered. The solutions to non–stiff equations for the substrates degradation kinetics and microbial growth kinetics were obtained using the ode45 tool in Matlab which is based on the fourth and fifth order explicit Runge–Kutta approximations. Errors in the iterations and approximations were kept to a minimum using an ‘adaptive time step’ method. Simulations were performed with a multi–input–single–output structure for the model. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the model in order to prioritize the more pertinent parameters. Qualitatively, all simulated CO2 mass fraction temporal variation profiles gave similar trends with an initial sharp rise to a peak value before a dip over the first 50 to 100 days followed by stabilization to a quasi-constant value. Cross-validation showed moderate consistency between the quantitative simulation results for mass fraction of CO2 with the very scanty similar empirical datasets. The local sensitivity analysis indicated that the initial fraction of degradable components, matrix porosity, tortuosity factor arising from the gas phase saturation and the mass flow rate of air were the most important parameters influencing the peak mass fraction of CO2. The local sensitivity analysis leads to recommend that an air injection rate of 2–4×10–5 kg/s in a bioreactor landfill lysimeter of internal radius 0.2 m with a matrix of solid wastes having an initial fraction of degradable components of 30–60% and an average bulk porosity of 20–40% may keep CO2 emissions upto 35% (mass fraction).

Keywords: bioreactor landfill; modeling; carbon dioxide; gas profiles; sensitivity analyses

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DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONSTRUCTION BLOCKS BY ALKALINE ACTIVATION OF BOF SLAG

 

N.T. Sithole1*, F. Okonta2, F. Ntuli1 

 

1University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Engineering,

P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2088, South Africa

nastassias@uj.ac.za, fntuli@uj.ac.za 

2Department of Civil Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg,

P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa

ABSTRACT

 

Large quantities of basic oxygen furnace (BOFS) are dumped in landfills of which the available land for land-filling of large quantities of waste is reducing all over the world. It is therefore important to develop processes which beneficiates solid waste; BOF slag specifically. The present study attempts to investigate the potential to synthesize BOF slag based light weight construction blocks. The effects of several factors on the UCS of BOF slag based light weight construction blocks (LWCB) was also investigated. The test variables were molarities of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (5 M, 10 M and 15 M); the solid to liquid ratio (20 %, 25 % and 30 %); the sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) to NaOH ratio (0.5:1, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1); the curing temperature (40°C, 80°C and 100°C). It was found that optimum synthesis conditions were 5M NaOH, 80°C and 1:1 Sodium Silicate: NaOH ratio. The LWCB composite met the minimum requirements for ASTM C34-13, C129-14a and South African standard (SANS227: 2007).

 

Keywords: Basic oxygen furnace slag, lightweight construction block, alkaline activation, geopolymer, porosity

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FORECASTING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE QUANTITY AND QUALITY IN A DEVELOPING REGION USING REGRESSION PREDICTIVE MODELS

 

Noor M. Al-Subu1, Issam A. Al-Khatib2,* Stamatia Kontogianni3

1Faculty of Graduate Studies, Birzeit University, P.O. Box 14, Birzeit, West Bank

2Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, P.O. Box 14, Birzeit, West Bank

3Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, 54006 Thessaloniki, Greece

 

ikhatib@birzeit.edu; ikhatib2012@yahoo.com

Tel. +972-22982120, Fax: +972-22982120

 

ABSTRACT

 

Updated waste composition information relation using economic, socio-demographic and management data will identify possible factors that will help in selecting the crucial design options and the setting of an adequate framework to improve the sustainable planning, management and operation of solid waste facilities. To this direction this paper presents the results of a study performed in Nablus and Jenin Districts, West Bank, which involves application of efficient mathematical models to predict the future generation rates and components of municipal solid waste generation in the given area.

Monthly quantities of solid waste in the two aforementioned governorates were compiled for the years of 2011-2013 while simultaneously data was collected to identify waste composition. The mean value of the daily generated solid waste is found to be 0.95 kg/cap/day. Seven multiple-variable regression equations and models are derived for estimating the monthly generated total solid waste and its components. The results were crosschecked with the introduction of appropriate indicators which established the models high reliability and significance in predicting the components of SW. The developed models’ results aim to assist the decision-makers to better organise and plan the SWM in the areas of interest as well as step in the design and plan of the SWM facilities to ensure their sustainable operation in the future.

Keywords: Municipal solid waste; forecasting; developing countries; regression models
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FACTORS AFFECTING THE LEACHING OF HEAVY METALS (NI+2, PB+2, CR+3) CONTAINED IN SLUDGE WASTE S/S BY HYDRAULIC BENDERS, PART II: WATER/CEMENT (W/C) AND WASTE/CEMENT RATIO (W/C) IN S/S CEMENT PASTE

 

  1. Chaabane1, K. Moussaceb1,*, A. Aït-Mokhtar2, Ch. Belebchouche1 and D. BELLACHE1

 

1Laboratoire de Technologie des Matériaux et de Génie des Procédés,

Faculté de Technologie, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia, Algérie

2 Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur pour l’Environnement UMR CNRS 7356,

Université de La Rochelle, La Rochelle, France

karimmoussaceb@yahoo.fr; Tel (+213662095603)

ABSTRACT

 

This work is a complementary study to a previous work conducted on Stabilization/Solidification(S/S) in a mortar of hazardous waste generated from cutlery unit (Algeria). This study focusses on S/S in cement pastes where different water/cement ratio (w/c) (0.4 and 0.6) and waste/cement ratio (W/c) (10%; 20%; 25%; 30% and 45%) were formulated. Heavy metals contained in this waste were retained within the structure of the S/S materials during the hydration process. Best mechanical strengths were obtained for S/S materials P(0.4)3 and P(0.6)4. Several tests of lixiviation namely; TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure), pore water (PW), maximum mobile fraction (MMF) and Monolithic leaching test (MLT), were performed to assess their behavior under different conditions. Results obtained have shown that S/S P(0.4)3 is the most efficient for the treatment of this waste. Comparative study between S/S cement pastes and S/S mortars has shown that S/S mortars are more efficient for the treatment of the sludge waste. This is due to the more complex morphology of their porous microstructure.

Keywords Cement paste, Mortar, Hazardous waste, Heavy metals, Solidification/Stabilization, Hydraulic binder, leaching

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ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FOR SANITARY LANDFILLS IN THE SOUTH COAST OF BAHIA, BRAZIL

 

Christiana Cabicieri Profice, Ariene Bomfim Cerqueira, Guilhardes de Jesus Júnior, Ronaldo Lima Gomes, Roberto Lemos Mendonça,

Uilton Jorge Barreto Santana Amaral, Kayky Sales Bibiano Pereira

State University of Santa Cruz / UESC, Ilhéus, Bahia Brazil in a partnership between the Graduate Program in Regional Development and Environment / PRODEMA and the Environmental Base of the institution itself

ccprofice@uesc.br

ABSTRACT

 

Law 12.305/2010, which established the National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP), guides Brazilian municipalities on the proper management of waste, and describes the sanitary landfills that provide for environmentally adequate final disposal of waste. The present work, through the elaboration of mapping material, aims to provide elements to allow the strategic planning of waste management and identify potential sites for final adequate disposal of waste in the municipalities of Ilhéus, Canavieiras, Itacaré, and Una in the State of Bahia, Brazil. Geoprocessing techniques were used for this, particularly ArcGis 10.2.2, which made it possible to identify locations that satisfied the eight characteristics of landuse and land cover, physical attributes and environmental restrictions imposed by legislation, in Landsat imagery. Thematic maps were produced at the appropriate planning scale, describing the profile of the region, and allowing identification of areas potentially able to meet the technical and legal requirements for installation of sanitary landfills. The purpose of this work was to minimize the environmental damage caused by improper disposal of solid waste in this region of high ecological value.

Keywords: Environmental planning; sanitary landfills; GIS

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THE PROTECTIVE FUNCTIONS STIMULATION OF THE SOIL COMPLEX WITH THE USE OF BIOGENIC COMPOSITES BASED ON THE SEWAGE SLUDGE AND PHOSPHOGYPSUM

 

Ye. Chernysh*1, PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher

 1.  Plyatsuk1, DSc., Professor

2. Dychenko2, Ph.D.

1Department of Applied Ecology, 2Department of General Chemistry

Faculty of Technical Systems and Energy Efficient

Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, 40007, Ukraine

e.chernish@ssu.edu.ua

ABSTRACT

 

This paper focuses on composites to help immobilize heavy metals (HM) by transforming them into insoluble fraction. The study identifies the primary biochemical processes stimulating protective functions of the soil complex. The study proposes a model for the mineral structure of biogenic composite formed during anaerobic fermentation under biosulphate reduction conditions. It was determined that the structural transformations are characteristic changes of the soil complex aggregates during autocatalytic regulation of its buffer properties. When restoring the soil complex by using biocomposite, the fraction of metals firmly bound in the mineral and organic structure that are not available to plants increases. The most significant changes in the fraction composition are observed in the organic matter and the residuum (the insoluble HM, such as silicates and sulfides). When restoring soils contaminated with lead, the significant increase in the relative portion of residuum from 5.6–9.05% to 45.3–51.7% is observed at all levels of acidity. The formalized conceptual model of biocomposite influence on the process of natural regulation of the buffer properties of the soil complex is discussed.

Keywords: soil complex, protective properties, heavy metals, biogenic composite, phosphogypsum, sewage sludge

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SPATIALITY, SEASONALITY AND INDEX ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN SOIL OF WASTE DISPOSAL SITE IN KHULNA OF BANGLADESH

 

Islam M. Rafizul1 and Kanij Fahmida2

1Professor, Department of Civil Engineering

2Postgraduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering

Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, Khulna-9203, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

 

The main focus of this study is to evaluate the level of contamination of soil spatially and seasonally. Sixty soil samples are collected from different selected locations in two different seasons; dry season (April, 2016) as well as rainy season (June, 2016) from a selected waste disposal site at old Rajbandh, Khulna, Bangladesh. In the laboratory, the concentrations of Aluminium (Al), Arsenic (As), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Potassium (K), Manganese (Mn), Sodium (Na), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Antimony (Sb), Scandium (Sc), Strontium (Sr), Titanium (Ti), Vanadium (V) and Zinc (Zn) in soil are measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). In this study, to assess the level of contamination of soil, various indices such as potential contamination (Cp), contamination factor (CF), contamination load index (CLI), modified contamination degree (mCD), numerical integrated contamination factor (NICF), enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (PERI) are used. Result reveals that the soil of dry season shows comparatively the higher concentration of heavy metals than that of rainy season. The values of CF indicate that soil is highly contaminated by Cd and Sb, in addition to moderately contaminated by Pb and As. Result also reveals that soil is moderately contaminated according to mCD in dry season. The values of EF indicate that soil samples are extremely severely enriched by the elements Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg and Sb. In summary, most of the indices i.e. CF, mCd, Igeo and PERI indicate that soil is contaminated by Cd and Sb as well as Pb and As which is detrimental for the surrounding environment. The results of Pearson’s correlation and principle component analysis (PCA) indicate that most of the heavy metals are found to bear significantly correlated with each other indicating close association with each other in soil in both the seasons. Finally, the outcome of this study provides some useful perceptions for making appropriate management strategies to avoid or decrease the heavy metal contamination of a waste disposal site.

Keywords: Disposal site; contaminated soil; heavy metals; contamination index; spatial distribution; seasonal variation.

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BIODEGRADATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES INTO ORGANIC FERTILIZER USING TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM

 

Feyisa Girma Eranaa*, Mekuria Gebru Denbela, Tesfaye Alemu Tenkegnab, Mekibib Dawit a

 

aCenter for Environmental Sciences,

bDepartment of Microbial, Cellular and Molecular Biology

College of Natural and Computational Science,

Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

wbatu28@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

 

There is high solid waste generation rate and about 90% is land filled and only 5% is composted in Ethiopia. Therefore, we carried out study on municipal solid wastes composting using Trichoderma harzianum inoculants and use as biofertilizer. From physicochemical analysis of matured compost the results were within the range of acceptable limits set by most countries’ guidelines for agricultural inputs. Furthermore, matured compost showed the mean number of bacterial colonies ranges from 9.18 x 10 6 to 1.86 x 107 cfu g-1 and whereas fungal colonies ranges from 1.27 x 10 4 to 1.59 x 104 cfu g-1. Composting facilitated the recovery of biodegradable organic wastes by converting into organic fertilizers and minimized the overflow of municipal solid waste dumped to landfills. In present study using Trichoderma harzianum inoculants did not further improve compost physicochemical properties as compared to the control treatments with only natural microbial decomposers. Therefore, inoculants of Trichoderma harzianum to facilitate composting and the recovery of biodegradable organic wastes needs further study for others parameters optimization.

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Issue 1, February 2019

USE OF RED CERAMIC INDUSTRY RESIDUE FOR STRUCTURAL MASONRY BLOCKS PRODUCTION IN AMAZON

 

M.O. Souza1, D.R.C. Oliveira2

1Sanitation Engineer / UFPA, Specialist in Natural Resource Management, NAEA / UFPA;

M.S. Constructive Process Engineering and Urban Sanitation-ITEC / UFPA

2Civil Engineer, M.S. in Structures and Civil Construction, UNB; Dr. in Structure, UNB; Ph.D. in Architecture, Imperial College of London

Department of Civil Engineering of the Institute of Technology

Federal University of Pará-UFPA, Av. Augusto Corrêa 01, Room 24, CEP 66075-970, Belém, PA-Brazil

 

ABSTRACT

 

The ceramic pottery industry of the state of Amapá suffers significant production losses because of the fragility of the drying and firing processes. The average loss is 5 %, and can reach values of 33 %, representing high operational and environmental costs and low productivity. This study investigated the utilization of red ceramic waste produced in the city of Macapá, state of Amapá, as raw material for the production of structural ceramic blocks. Initially, the mineralogical characterization of clay and chamotte was performed. For the physical tests, the prismatic and cylindrical specimens were produced. Six compositions of mixture of clay and chamotte, in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % of chamotte mass were prepared. The firing process occurred at temperatures of 850, 950 and 1050 °C, with gradient of 2.5 °C/min. The properties evaluated were linear shrinkage, loss on ignition, apparent porosity, water absorption, bulk density, flexural and compressive strength, color and vitrification curves. The addition of chamotte in percentages of up to 25 % resulted in technological properties of ceramic components with values suitable for the production of structural ceramic blocks.

Keywords: Red ceramic, structural ceramic blocks, incorporation of waste to ceramic aggregate

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 PROMOTION OF PLANT GROWTH IN SOILS DEGRADED BY URBAN MINING THROUGH THE ADDITION OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

 

  1. Castro1, A. Rosso1, W. Osorio2, J.I. Tobón3, E. Mejía4

 

1Universidad de San Buenaventura sede Medellín, Facultad de Ingeniería

2Grupo de microbiología del suelo, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, Colombia

3Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de la Construcción Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín

4Institución Universitaria Pascual Bravo – Facultad de Ingeniería– Grupo de Investigación GIIAM –Dirección: Calle 73 No. 73A – 226, Código Postal 050034 – Medellín – Colombia

erica.mejia@pascualbravo.edu.co

 

ABSTRACT

 

Construction and demolition processes produce approximately 50% of all urban waste. The production of construction and demolition waste (CDW) and the consumption of raw materials have increased in order to satisfy the demand generated by a demographic explosion in cities. As a result, the extraction of raw materials has become an unsustainable activity that utilizes approximately 50% of non-renewable natural resources. This generates eco-systemic changes that can alter the biological equilibrium; the most representative changes are the loss of soil and vegetation, which hinder the implementation of environmental services such as landscaping, recreation, water retention, and agricultural activities, among others. For this reason, it is necessary to generate new options that will permit the recycling of CDW. One option is to use this waste as a source of nutrients for degraded soils, which would make it possible to mitigate the environmental impacts caused by both mining and this solid waste. This study evaluated the effect of adding construction and demolition waste to urban soils degraded by the clay extraction process on the establishment of the plant species Leucaena leucocephala. The results showed that the addition of CDW modified the soil pH and improved nutrient availability. After planting, it was found that the leaf phosphorus concentration in the treatment without waste (control) was of 0.0170 (g Kg-1), while in the treatment with waste it was of 0.308 (g Kg-1), the height and diameter were double the height and diameter for the control, the aerial dry mass was 2.6 times greater than the control and the total phosphorus was 1.4 times greater than the control. These results are important because they confirm that CDW can be used in restoration programs for soils degraded by mining.

Keywords: Degraded Soils, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW), Promotion of plant growth

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BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:A CRITICAL REVIEW

 

Agnes Anto Chembukavua, Arif Mohammada, Devendra Narain Singhb*

 

aResearch Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering

bInstitute Chair Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,

Powai, Mumbai 400076, India

Phone: +91-22-2576-7340; Fax: +91-22-2576-7302

dns@civil.iitb.ac.in

 

ABSTRACT

 

Landfilling is the most common method for disposing the municipal solid waste, MSW, especially in developing countries. However, the issues pertaining to land acquisition, unhygienic conditions at the landfills and environmental pollution due to intentional/accidental fires are becoming a big nuisance to the town planners and populace. In order to overcome these issues, the bioreactor landfill, BLF, wherein degradation of the MSW and generation of landfill gases, LFG, can be accelerated, has been found to be a better MSW management strategy. However, in the recent past, BLFs have been criticized for their inefficiency and questions have been raised on their suitability as the ‘right approach’ to dispose the MSW. This calls for a critical evaluation of the issues pertaining to the effective functioning of BLFs such as (i) MSW decomposition characteristics, (ii) leachate recirculation system (iii) energy generation potential, of the LFG, (iv) estimation of the mining time and sustainable applications of the mined residues and (v) rigorous performance monitoring. A review of existing literature has been conducted and it is believed that such a ‘fact finding exercise’ would be helpful in creating guidelines related to the design, construction, operation and monitoring of a BLF, particularly in developing countries. Furthermore, based on this exercise the efficacy of BLF could be ameliorated by implementing techniques and/or methods to: (i) amend leachate characteristics for achieving decomposition of the recalcitrant fractions in the MSW, (ii) facilitate non-invasive and economical monitoring of the decomposition of the MSW, (iii) estimate accurately the time required for stabilization of the MSW and (iv) recover the resource from the mined residues.

Keywords: Municipal solid waste; bioreactor landfill; leachate; landfill gas; mined residues; monitoring

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RECYCLING COPPER AND POLYSTYRENE FROM SOLID WASTE STREAM IN DEVELOPING CONDUCTIVE COMPOSITES

 

 A. Abdulkareem, A. G. Adeniyi*

 

P.M. B. 1515, Chemical Engineering Department

University of Ilorin

Nigeria

remson414@yahoo.co.uk

 

ABSTRACT

 

Combining Polystyrene and copper waste in the production of conductive composite is of combined economic and environmental sustainability interest. In the present work, conductive composites of micro copper particle and a solvated polystyrene resin were prepared. The graded copper particles were thoroughly mixed with the solvated polystyrene resin by simple mechanical stirring, using hand lay-up process and cold pressing into the desired shapes. The conductive composites were prepared with varying content of copper and the electrical conductivity of the resulting composites was determined using a four point probe method. The composites were further characterised using laboratory-made density setup and metallurgical microscopy. A conductivity of 4.57 × 10−8 S cm−1 was achieved with 10 wt% loading of copper and a maximum conductivity of 2.53 × 10−7 S cm−1 was achieved with 40 wt% of copper content. The density and microscopy results showed that the composites have increasing conductive network as the composition of copper increased in the solvated polystyrene matrix. The obtained results for the conductive composites prepared indicated a high potential for their successful use in electrical and electromagnetic applications.

Keywords: Copper waste, polystyrene waste, Conductive composites, recycling

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COAL BOTTOM ASH BLENDED WITH FLY ASH AND PORTLAND CEMENT AS A TECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCT IN ROAD PAVING

 

Luciano Moises Sippert Santarema, Karine da Rocha Alvesb, Sydney Sabedotc*

 

aDepartamento Nacional de Infraestrutura de Transportes (DNIT), Rua Siqueira Campos,

664, CEP 90010-000, Porto Alegre, Brazil

bDepartamento Nacional de Infraestrutura de Transportes (DNIT), Rua Siqueira Campos,

664, CEP 90010-000, Porto Alegre, Brazil

cUnilasalle, Av. Victor Barreto, 2288, CEP 92010-000, Canoas, Brazil

Phone: 55 51 3476 8500, Fax: 55 51 3472 3511

sydney.sabedot@unilasalle.edu.br

 

ABSTRACT

 

This study evaluated the mechanical behavior of 16 blends with the use of coal bottom ash and varied proportions of fly ash and composite Portland cement. Assays of mechanical characterization in bottom ash and blends with Proctor assays, Resistance to Simple Compressive with 7, 14, 28, 84 days curing time and California Bearing Ratio were applied. The main results of this study indicated that the bottom ash is a material of group A-4 in the TRB classification; the blend composed of 87% bottom ash, 5% fly ash, 8% cement is the ideal blend, with RSC7 of 2.29 MPa, suitable for base and sub-base of highways, according to Brazilian standard DNIT 143/2010-ES; the blends with cement ratio below 8% do not comply with the Brazilian standard for a minimum strength of 2.1 MPa; the bottom ash presented a better support capacity than some soils.

Keywords: Coal bottom ash, road paving, pavement blend, mechanical characterization, highway alternative material

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CONCENTRATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION OF POLYBROMINATEDDIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) IN THE DUMPSITE SOIL OF THE OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY, ILE-IFE, NIGERIA

 

Godwin O. Olutona1*, John A. O. Oyekunle2, Aderemi O. Ogunfowokan2,

Olalekan S. Fatoki3, Abolanle S. Adekunle2

 

1Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology,

Cape Town, South Africa

Phone: +2348132406932

delog2@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

 

Soil samples from the dumpsite of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria were assessed on seasonal basis for their levels of polybrominateddiphenyl ethers. Isolation of the target PBDEs compounds was done using soxhlet extractor. Extracts obtained were subjected to a multi-layer column chromatography employing different forms of silica gel. The prepared samples were analysed using GC-MS. The mean values and range (ng/g) of PBDEs were: BDE 28 (0.79±0.72; Nd-1.65); BDE 47 (0.36±0.34, Nd-0.84); BDE 99 (0.85±0.59, Nd-1.74); BDE 100 (1.04±0.98, Nd-2.48); BDE153 (13.8±29.2, Nd-106); and BDE 154 (0.74±0.98, Nd-3.19). Total burden of the PBDEs in 0-15 cm soil layer were higher than those in the 15-30 cm layer. The results of this study indicated that the levels of PBDEs were higher in the dumpsite soil samples during wet season which portend high risk to human and the environment.

Keywords: Emerging contaminants; Endocrine chemicals; Flame retardants; Persistent organic pollutant; waste electrical and electronic equipment.

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APPLICATION OF DETERMINISTIC, STOCHASTIC AND FUZZY

LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODELS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT STUDIES:  LITERATURE REVIEW

 

  1. Vivekanand1, Dr. G.S. Prakash2

 

1Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management

2Professor & Head of Department, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management

Ramaiah Institute of Technology, M.S Ramaiah Nagar, MSRIT Post, Bangalore – 560054, Karnataka, India

vivekanand@msrit.edu, Phone (011) (91) 9952716390

prakash5636@yahoo.com, Phone (011) (91) 9448226933

ABSTRACT

 

This paper focuses on providing details about the mathematical model’s which were applied to solid waste management from the period 1960 onwards. The main focus is on the deterministic, stochastic and fuzzy linear programming for solid waste management studies. The whole purpose is to provide a beginner and researcher detailed information on how the objective function, constraints and decision variables have been created for solving a solid waste management problem. It also provides a detailed explanation on some of the major papers which have been widely referred and used by various other researchers who have been studying solid waste management models. In addition, this literature study can be made useful to various person who are planning to conduct study or research or apply linear programming techniques either deterministic, stochastic or fuzzy models to solid waste management area.

Keywords: Solid Waste Management, Linear Programming, Fuzzy Logic, Optimization, Stochastic programming, Goal Programming

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IMPACT OF PLANT NUTRIENTS ON PREDICTION OF WHEAT

CROP YIELD FROM POND ASH AMENDED FIELD

BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

 

R.C. Tripathi*, Senior Principal Scientist & Head,

K. Kalyani, S. K Jha, N. K. Srivastava, S. K. Thakur

 

Industrial Biotechnology and Waste Utilisation Group

CSIR- Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research

Digwadih Campus, Dhanbad (Jharkhand) India

Phone: 91-326-2388325/327, Fax: 091-326-2381385

rctripathicfri@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT

 

In India presently, 145 existing Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) contribute about 70% of the total energy requirement and produce approximately 184 million metric tons of fly ash per year, which is projected to exceed 440 million metric tons per annum by 2030. This quantity of fly ash generated poses significant environmental problems, besides occupying large areas of land for its dumping, requiring appropriate measures for its safe disposal and gainful utilization on sustainable basis. Based on the field demonstration work carried out on the bulk utilization of pond ash in agriculture and forestry sectors under different agro-climatic conditions and soil types for the last two decades, it has been well established that pond ash has significant potential for utilization as liming agent, soil conditioner, source of plant nutrients and also for boosting the growth and yield of a variety of crops. Some field scale studies carried out especially in the waste/alkaline lands of State Agriculture Research Farm and farmers’ fields are discussed in the present paper for the development of artificial neural network (ANN) for the correlation of crop yields and plant nutrients.

As such, the influence of major plant nutrients viz. N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S on the yield of wheat crops cultivated in different soil types and agro-climatic conditions is discussed. Furthermore, an attempt has also been made to develop a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) model. Satisfactorily enough, it has been found that the predictions of the developed ANN model are in quite good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Neural networks, Pond ash, Agro-climatic conditions, Plant nutrients, Wheat crop

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A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE

CONTAMINATION IN AN AQUIFER WITH A COMPLEX

HYDROGEOLOGICAL SETTING—APPLICATION OF A

COUPLED ESTIMATION METHOD

 

Kazuei Ishii1, Atsushi Fujiyama, Masahiro Sato, Toru Furuichi

Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University

Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan

TEL +81-011-706-7284 FAX +81-011-706-7287

k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

 

1,4-Dioxane can be transported over a longer distance along groundwater flow than other organic contaminants because its sorption on soil particles, biodegradation, and evaporation can be negligible. It can be also transported more complexly, which is reflected in the complex groundwater flow, such as the regional groundwater flow that may not be detected by hydraulic head data only. This study attempted to identify parameters in flow and transport simulation for 1,4-dioxane groundwater contamination at a real illegal dumping site for hazardous waste in Japan. At the site, three aquifers are flowing in different directions and vertical groundwater appears to flow among these aquifers through the waste layer and/or thin clay layers. The second and third aquifers were significantly contaminated by 1,4-dioxane, although the waste layers did not reach the third aquifer and vertical slurry walls were constructed around the waste layer. This study applied a coupled estimation method that can simultaneously determine the parameters related to both flow and transport, such as hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity and dispersivity, using observed hydraulic head data as well as observed concentration data. The results revealed the existence of vertical groundwater flows between the second and third aquifers as being a complex and regional groundwater flow. Both the vertical groundwater flows and the construction of vertical walls affected the distribution of the 1,4-dioxane. This study showed that the coupled estimation method was able to present a regional groundwater flow that may not be found by the groundwater head data because the data on 1,4-dioxane concentration was effectively used to predict complex and regional groundwater flow, and helped predict the 1,4-dioxane concentration distribution in groundwater with higher accuracy.

Keywords: 1,4-dioxane, complex geological conditions, three-dimensional simulation, coupled estimation method

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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MONROVIA, LIBERIA:

IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

 

Victor Emery David Jr.a*, Jiang Wenchaoa, Yasinta Johna, Daniel Mmerekib

 

aFaculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering,

Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400045, PR China

bDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development,

Ton Duc Thang University, No. 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7,

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

emerydavid2011@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

 

The population of Monrovia is increasing accompanied by rapid urbanization. Due to rapid urbanization, economic development, higher living standards and changes in consumption patterns and lifestyle, the generation rate of waste has increased. Mismanagement of solid waste tends to hinder any progress towards environmental sustainability. This study endeavored to determine the adequacy of waste management services in the city, explore the linkage between population and development and the increase in the generation of wastes. The study assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively behavioral factors including knowledge, attitude and practices of solid waste management, collaboration among stakeholders, and challenges related to sustainable waste management in Monrovia. Households were selected randomly (simple and stratified) to show the socio-economic groups in the city. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants or personnel in charge of waste management and the use of questionnaires captured vital information on waste management in the city. The major findings showed the main proportion of waste generated in Monrovia was organic refuse (40.2%) followed by plastic (14.2%). Waste generated are inadequately disposed of due to the inadequate collection system, as large fragment of waste remain uncollected resulting in open dumping and burning of wastes. These waste management challenges have become heightened as a result of insufficient technology to ensure proper management, low budgetary allocations for effective waste management, lack of skilled professionals, poor implementation of regulations to ensure adequate management, and poor public awareness.

 Keywords: Sustainable waste management, Sustainable development, Municipal Solid Waste Management, Policy, Monrovia, Liberia

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SOLID WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

PRACTICES IN RURAL COMMUNITIES,

TEHRAN AND ALBORZ (IRAN)

 

Ali Reza Asgari1, 2, Tahereh Ghorbanian2, Daryoush Dadashzadeh2, Fatemeh Khalili3,

Ahmad Reza Yari4, Amin Bagheri5, Nader Yousefi1, *,

Seid Kamal Ghadiri6, Seyedeh Solmaz Talebi7

 

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran, University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran

3Environment and Occupational Health Center, National Institute of Health Research,

Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran

4Research Center for Environmental Pollutants, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

5Department of Health, Safety and Environment, School of Public Health & Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

7Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

Tel: +982188954914; yousefinader@gmail.com

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The aim of this study was to determine the quality (composition) of solid waste of rural communities in Tehran and Alborz provinces and current conditions of the solid waste management in this area. 18 villages were chosen and after primary training of people, information about the collection, transport, and disposal of these wastes was obtained by questionnaires. In most villages, the waste collection method was door to door. The results showed that the average household waste generation rate was 0.44 kg.cap-1.day-1 and the highest waste generation rate was in spring. The composition of household waste consisted of organic and food waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, metals, rubber, textiles, glass, woods, and other waste as 46.14%, 6.2%, 6.8%, 5.45%, 3.28%, 4.35%, 4.97%, 9.31%, 5.28%, respectively. Source separation and recycling programs can be considered as an effective approach for the solid waste management in these areas due to 23.42 % of generated waste were directly recyclable. The mean density of household waste was 442 kg.m-3, while the maximum and minimum density of the generated waste were 441.5 ± 138.87 and 346.97±101.74 in summer and fall, respectively. The total amount of agricultural wastes was 619321.612 ton. yr-1. According to the obtained results, providing a systematic waste management approach by considering the source segregation of waste for separation of the recyclable wastes and compost of organic and food wastes is recommended.

Keywords: Solid waste management, Rural Community, Tehran, Alborz, Composting, Recycling, Physical Composition

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